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SUIT: Suit for declaration of title, possession, permanent injunction and mesne projects – Plaintiffs came to know of the property only when they cleared the bank loan taken by their father mortgaging the property – Plaintiffs claimed that defendants in unlawful possession – Trial Court decreeing the suit – High Court reversing it – On appeal, Held : Neither the title to the property nor the adverse possession thereof proved by defendants – Hence Trial Court’s well considered judgment restored – High Court’s judgment set aside – Adverse possession. The suit property was purchased by one `N’, who died leaving all his properties to his sons (the plaintiffs) under a will. He had mortgaged the suit property as also other properties to a Bank. The plaintiffs were prosecuting their studies at the time of their father’s death. Plaintiffs became aware of the suit property only when they cleared the bank loan and got back the title deeds. They traced the suit property and found the defendant in unauthorized possession. Therefore, they filed the suit for declaration of title, possession, permanent injunction and mesne profits. The trial court decreed the Suit. On appeal, the High Court reversed the trial court’s judgment and dismissed the suit. Hence the appeal. =Allowing the appeal, the Court HELD : 1. The High Court has neither discussed the evidence relating to identity of the suit property nor held that the trial court’s finding that plaintiffs have established their title and identity of the suit property was erroneous. The High Court has rejected the entire case of the plaintiffs merely on the ground that in the mortgage suit of the Bank, the Katha number of the property is wrongly given. The plaintiffs have offered a simple and acceptable explanation in regard to the wrong Katha number. [Para 12] [625-A-C] 2. The first appellate court can re-appreciate evidence and record findings different from those recorded by the trial court. It is well settled that if the appraisal of evidence by the trial court suffers from material irregularity, as for example when its decision is based on mere conjectures and surmises, or when its decision relied upon inadmissible evidence or ignores material evidence or when it draws inferences and conclusions who do not naturally or logically flow from the proved facts, the appellate court is bound to interfere with the findings of the trial court. It is equally well settled that where the trial court has considered the entire evidence and recorded several material findings, the first appellate court would not reverse them on the basis of conjectures and surmises or without analyzing the relevant evidence in entirety. As the final court of facts, if the first appellate court is reversing the judgment of the trial court, it is bound to independently consider the entire evidence. The High Court has ignored these well settled principles. [Para 8] [622-E-H; 623-A] 3. In law, possession follows title. The plaintiffs having established title to the suit property, will be entitled to decree for possession, unless their right to the suit property was extinguished, by reason of defendant being in adverse possession for a period of twelve years prior to the suit. [Para 13] [625-E-F] 4. The sale deed dated 18.11.1985 alleged to have been executed by Gowramma (Ex.D1 is a certified copy) was clearly a fabricated document in regard to an non-existing site obviously with the intention of laying claim over the suit property. The said deed did not convey any right, title or interest to the defendant in respect of the suit property. [Para 15] [627-F-G] 5. To establish a claim of title by prescription, that is adverse possession for 12 years or more, the possession of the claimant must be physical/actual, exclusive, open, uninterrupted, notorious and hostile to the true owner for a period exceeding twelve years. It is also well settled that long and continuous possession by itself would not constitute adverse possession if it was either permissive possession or possession without animus possidendi. The pleas based on title and adverse possession are mutually inconsistent and the latter does not begin to operate until the former is renounced. Unless the person possessing the property has the requisite animus to possess the property hostile to the title of the true owner, the period for prescription will not commence. [Paras 17 and 18] [629-A-C] Periasami vs. P. Periathambi 1995 (6) SCC 523; Md. Mohammad Ali (dead) by LRs. vs. Jagdish Kalita 2004 (1) SCC 271 and P.T. Munichikkanna Reddy vs. Revamma 2007 (6) SCC 59 – relied on. Mohan Lal (Dead through LRs) vs. Mirza Abdul Gaffar 1996 (1) SCC 639, held inapplicable. 6. The only material produced by defendant to show that he was in possession from 1962, is the recital in the sale deed dated 18.11.1985. As the sale deed dated 18.11.1985 is established to be a bogus and false document, the claim of defendant that he was in occupation of the suit site as a tenant from 1962, is liable to be rejected. [Para 19] [630-E-F] 7.1. The judgment in O.S. No.578/1978 (Ex.P13) relied upon by defendant and the evidence of PW2 and PW3 would clearly establish that the defendant was residing in the property of Muddukrishna (site No.9) adjoining the suit property as a tenant, and that he had unauthorizedly put up a temporary cattle shed in the suit property in or about the year 1978. This may at best prove adverse possession of suit property by defendant from 1978. [Para 23] [632-F-H] 7.2. The defendant has not produced any evidence to show that he was in possession of the suit property for a period of 12 years prior to the filing of the suit by plaintiff on 24.6.1987. Neither the correspondence between defendant and City Survey Department subsequent to the suit nor the katha, sanction of plan and tax receipts of the years 1991, 1992, and 2002 (all subsequent to the suit), are of any relevance. The defendant did not examine either Gowramma or any other neighbour to show that he was in continuous possession of the suit property for more than 12 years. Except his vague and interested statement which is proved to be false, there is no evidence to show that he was in possession for a period of 12 years prior to the suit of plaintiffs. [Para 24] [633-A-C] 7.3. When defendant claimed title and that was proved to be false or fabricated, then the burden is heavy upon him to prove actual, exclusive, open, uninterrupted possession for 12 years. In this case he did not make out such possession for 12 years prior to the suit. While the plaintiffs have made out a clear and absolute title of the property, the defendant has not been able to make out title or adverse possession for more than 12 years. The High Court did not examine any of these aspects and by a cursory judgment, reversed the well considered judgment of the trial court. Therefore the decision of High Court cannot be sustained. The judgment and decree of the High Court is set aside and the judgment and decree passed by the trial court is restored. [Paras 25 and 26] [633-C-F] Case Law Reference: 1996 (1) SCC 639 held inapplicable Para 16 1995 (6) SCC 523 relied on Para 17 2004 (1) SCC 271 relied on Para 17 2007 (6) SCC 59 relied on Para 17 CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Civil Appeal No. 4125 of 2009. From the Judgment & Order dated 12.09.2006 of the High Court of Karnataka at Bangalore in RFA. No. 394 of 2004. Rajesh Mahale for the Appellants. Brijesh Kalappa and Divya Nair, N. Ganpathy for the Respondent.

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 1

 Reportable
 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

 CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION

 CIVIL APPEAL NO.4125 OF 2009
 [Arising out of SLP (C) No. 8405 of 2007]

L. N. Aswathama & Anr. ... Appellant(s)

Vs.

P. Prakash ... Respondent (s)

 O R D E R

R. V. Raveendran, J.

 Leave granted.

2.The appellants are the plaintiffs in a suit (OS No.2667/1987

on the file of the City Civil Court, Bangalore) filed against

the respondent, for declaration of title, possession, permanent

injunction and mesne profits in regard to site bearing no.19

(old site no.8), situated at 2nd Cross, Subedarpalya,

Vyalikaval, Bangalore, measuring 30' x 35'.

3. In brief, the case of the appellants - plaintiffs is as

follows: The suit property was purchased by one Hanumakka, from

the state government in the year 1940. She sold the said site

to one Bellary Muniswamy Pillai under a sale deed dated

23.9.1940, who in turn sold it to appellants' father

Narayanaswamappa under sale deed dated 21.4.1950. The said
 2

Narayanaswamappa was registered as the owner of the said plot

in the village records and was paying the taxes therefor.

Narayanaswamappa suffered a stroke and after a prolonged

illness died in December 1966 leaving all his properties to his

sons (plaintiffs) under his will dated 15.7.1956. The

plaintiffs were unaware that their father owned the said plot,

as before and at the time of his death, they were prosecuting

their studies and were not conversant with their father's

affairs. Their father had taken some loan from Canara Bank and

as security therefor had mortgaged the said site and other

properties. The Bank obtained a decree for sale of the

mortgaged properties. The plaintiffs became aware of the suit

property only after they cleared the loan due to the Bank and

got back the various title deeds deposited with the Bank on

9.1.1984. Thereafter, they took steps to trace the suit

property and collect the necessary papers and found that the

defendant who had no right or title was in possession of the

said property by putting some temporary unauthorized structure

for tethering cattle. The appellants, therefore, filed the said

suit.

4. The defendant-respondent resisted the suit by denying the

title of plaintiffs and claiming title to the suit property in

himself. According to him, the said property belonged to one

Channabasavanna; that after his death, the said property
 3

devolved upon his wife Gowramma; that ever since 1962, he was

tethering his cows in the suit property with the consent of

Channabasavanna and after the death of Channabasavanna

continued as Gowramma's tenant; and that ultimately the said

Gowramma sold the schedule property (measuring 25'x 40') to him

under a registered sale deed dated 18.11.1985. The defendant

also contended that as he was in continuous undisturbed

possession of the suit property for more than 30 years, he had

perfected his title by adverse possession. To support his claim

for possession, he relied on the decree for permanent

injunction obtained by him on 18.9.1979 in OS No.578/1978,

against the Bangalore City Corporation, when it tried to

disturb his possession in 1978. He contended that the suit

filed by the appellants was barred by limitation, as he had

perfected his title by adverse possession.

5.The trial court framed appropriate issues, relating to title

of plaintiffs, possession, adverse possession, limitation and

the reliefs sought. After appreciating the oral and documentary

evidence, the trial court, by a detailed judgment, decreed the

suit on 2.1.2004. It found that the plaintiffs had established

their title to the suit property and that the defendant neither

established his title, nor established adverse possession for

more than 12 years before the suit. Consequently, the trial

court declared that plaintiffs had title to the suit property
 4

and directed the defendant to deliver up possession after

removing his materials. It also directed the defendant not to

cause any interference to plaintiffs' possession, after

delivering possession to plaintiffs.

6. The said judgment and decree passed by the trial court was

challenged by the defendant. A learned Single Judge of the

Karnataka High Court by judgment dated 12.9.2006, reversed the

trial court's judgment and dismissed the suit. The High Court,

without much discussion, held that plaintiffs had failed to

prove that they had better title than the defendant and had

also failed to prove that the suit property in the possession

of defendant was the property to which they claimed title as

having been purchased by their father under Ex.P2 dated

21.4.1950. The plaintiffs sought special leave of this Court,

to file an appeal against the said judgment. This court found

the judgment of the High Court was sketchy and cryptic, and

therefore issued limited notice to the respondent on 15.5.2007

to show cause why the matter should not be remanded to the High

Court for "writing a proper judgment after considering the

evidence on record." However, subsequently, both the parties

submitted that the remand will delay the ultimate decision and

requested this Court itself to consider the appeal on merits.

Accepting the said request, on 10.12.2007, this Court noted

that it will go into the merits of the matter also and for that
 5

purpose called for the records. We have heard the learned

counsel.

7.We find that the High Court did not formulate any points for

consideration, nor examine the relevant issues or evidence. It

reversed the well considered judgment of the trial court mainly

on the ground that katha number of the suit property, given in

two of the documents relied by the plaintiffs did not tally. It

overlooked the fact that the trial court had recorded its

findings based on other evidence, by excluding the said two

documents from consideration. The High Court also ignored the

explanation for the discrepancy, offered by the plaintiffs.

8.The first appellate court can re-appreciate evidence and

record findings different from those recorded by the trial

court. It is well settled that if the appraisal of evidence by

the trial court suffers from material irregularity, as for

example when its decision is based on mere conjectures and

surmises, or when its decision relies upon inadmissible

evidence or ignores material evidence or when it draws

inferences and conclusions which do not naturally or logically

flow from the proved facts, the appellate court is bound to

interfere with the findings of the trial court. It is equally

well settled that where the trial court has considered the

entire evidence and recorded several material findings, the
 6

first appellate court would not reverse them on the basis of

conjectures and surmises or without analyzing the relevant

evidence in entirety. As the final court of facts, if the first

appellate court is reversing the judgment of the trial court,

it is bound to independently consider the entire evidence. The

High Court has ignored these well settled principles. In these

peculiar circumstances, we have to examine the correctness of

the findings recorded by the High Court.

9. On the contentions urged, the following questions arises

for consideration: (i) whether plaintiffs have established

their title to the schedule property and entitlement to

possession; (ii) whether defendant has proved his title to the

schedule property; (iii) whether defendant has perfected his

title by adverse possession and therefore the suit is barred by

limitation.

Re : Question (i)

10.Plaintiff no.1, examined as PW1, stated that the suit plot

was allotted to Hanumakka, that she sold it to Bellary

Muniswamy Pillai, who in turn, sold it to his father. The

relevant title documents were exhibited. Though the title/grant

certificate issued by the government in favour of Hanumakka was

not produced, the plaintiffs produced the payment challan dated

13.3.1940 issued by Bangalore Taluk Treasury (marked as Ex.P3)
 7

showing that Hanumakka had remitted Rs.16/6/6 towards the cost

of a residential site purchased by her at Subedarpalya,

Vyalikaval, Bangalore, in the Treasury on 13.3.1940. Ex.P2 is

the sale deed dated 5.9.1940 executed by Hanumakka in favour of

Bellary Muniswamy Pillai in regard to the schedule plot wherein

she recites that she had purchased the said site no.8 measuring

30' x 35' in the sites laid out by the government in

Subedarpalya. Ex.P1 is the sale deed dated 21.4.1950 executed

by Bellary Muniswamy Pillai conveying the said plot to

Narayanswammappa. Ex.P4 is the endorsement issued by the

Village Panchyat showing that Narayanaswamappa was the Kathedar

of the suit property (though it mentions only the khata number

and not the site number). Ex.P18 is the mortgage decree dated

3.2.1965 passed by the Principal Civil Judge, Bangalore city in

O.S. No. 8/1965 filed by Canara Bank against Narayanaswamappa

which shows the schedule property as one of the mortgaged

properties. Ex.P14 is the will under which Narayanaswamappa

bequeathed his properties to his two sons (plaintiffs). These

documents clearly make out the title of the plaintiffs to the

schedule property and also establish that plaintiffs' father

had exercised rights of ownership thereon by mortgaging the

said property in favour of Canara Bank.

11.The next question is whether plaintiffs have established

that site no.8 in regard to which they produced the documents
 8

of title and established the title, is the suit property in the

occupation of defendant. The case of the plaintiffs is that the

schedule property is situated in a small layout in Subedarpalya

formed by the government, shown in the sketch Ex.P15. The

defendant has admitted that the property adjoining the suit

property to the East, belonged to one Perumal. The plaintiffs

have exhibited the sale deed dated 26.9.1955 under which said

Perumal purchased the adjoining site no.9 as also the sale deed

dated 6.11.1978 under which Perumal sold it to K. Muddukrishna,

as Exs.P11 and P12. These documents (Ex.P11 and P12) show that

plot no.9 in the layout formed by the government was purchased

by one R. Sanniyappa Naidu in an auction conducted by the

government and he sold it to Perumal under sale deed dated

26.9.1955 who in turn sold it to K. Muddukrishna under deed

dated 6.11.1978. The measurements of the said site no.9 are

shown as 30 ft. x 35 ft. These documents also show that site

No.8 (suit property) belonging to Narayanaswamappa is situated

to the west of the said site no.9. The boundaries and

measurements in Ex.P11 and P12 are in consonance with the

boundaries of suit property in the title deeds of plaintiffs

(Ex.P1 and P2) and the boundaries and measurements in the plan

produced by the plaintiff as per Ex.P15. The plaintiffs have

thus established the identity of the suit property with

reference to the sketch (Ex.P15) and the sale deeds (Ex.P11

dated 26.9.1955 and Ex.P12 dated 6.11.1978) relating to the
 9

plot no. 9 adjacent to the suit property, situated to the east

of the suit property. We find that the trial court has also by

detailed reference to the documents and boundaries identified

the property purchased by Narayanaswammppa under Ex.P1 dated

21.4.1950 as the suit property in the wrongful possession of

the defendant.

12.The High Court has neither discussed the evidence relating

to identity of the suit property nor held that the trial

court's finding that plaintiffs have established their title

and identity of the suit property was erroneous. The High Court

has rejected the entire case of the plaintiffs merely on the

ground that in the mortgage suit of the Bank, the Katha number

of the property is wrongly given. The plaintiffs have offered a

simple and acceptable explanation by pointing out that in

Ex.P17 and P18 (preliminary and final decree in the mortgage

suit of the Bank), the katha numbers of items (3) and (4) of

the schedule had been interchanged. Item (4) is site no.8 and

the katha number has been mentioned as 95 instead of 53. For

item (3), Katha number is mentioned as 53 instead of 95. The

correct katha number is 53 as is evident from Ex.P4 and P5

issued by the village punchayat.

13. In law, possession follows title. The plaintiffs having

established title to the suit property, will be entitled to
 10

decree for possession, unless their right to the suit property

was extinguished, by reason of defendant being in adverse

possession for a period of twelve years prior to the suit.

Re: Question (ii)

14. The defendant has claimed title to the suit property. He,

however, contends that the suit property in his occupation

bears the site no.18A and measures 25' x 40' and that the said

plot was sold to him by Gowramma on 18.11.1985. The defendant

contends that the suit property earlier belonged to Gowramma's

husband Channabasavanna and on his death, Gowramma became the

owner thereof; and that he had taken the said property on rent

from in or about the year 1962 and paying rents to Gowramma,

till he purchased it from her on 18.11.1985. Defendant has not

produced any document to show the title of Gowramma or her

husband, though the sale deed dated 18.11.1985 refers to the

earlier title deeds. The defendant merely stated that the sale

deed dated 18.11.1985 recited about the previous title. The

sale deed dated 18.11.1985 (a certified copy which is produced

as Ex.D1) said to have been executed by Gowramma, no doubt

purports to convey site No.18A measuring 25' x 40' to the

defendant. The said sale deed recites that the vendor Gowramma

was appointed as guardian of her husband Channabasavanna who

was a lunatic; that he had purchased the property, of which

what was being sold by her to defendant, was a part, under
 11

registered sale deed dated 28.8.1959 (registered as Document

No.4725, Book I, Vol.1821, pages 200-204, in the office of the

Sub-Registrar, Bangalore North Taluk), and that by virtue of an

order (certified copy of which was dated 20.10.1964) made in

Misc.C. No.444/1964 by the II Addl. District Judge, Bangalore,

she became the owner of the suit property. The defendant, as

noticed above, significantly did not produce the previous title

deed dated 28.8.1959 or the said order of the District court in

Misc. C.No.444/1964.

15. The plaintiffs have produced and marked as Ex. P21 and

Ex.P22, certified copies of the petition and order in Misc.

C.No.444/1964, filed by Gowramma praying for grant of letters

of administration. They show that Gowramma sought letters of

administration in regard to two properties left by her husband

and that by order dated 19.10.1964 the court granted such

relief. The two properties were (i) premises no.9, Fifth cross,

Malleswaram, Bangalore (earlier site no.8, in Sy. No.9 of

Kayamgutta Ranganathapura, Kasaba Hobli, Bangalore North Taluk)

and (ii) Premises no.17, Subedarpalya Vyalikaval, Bangalore

North Taluk measuring 30' x 35' bounded on the East by site

no.16, belonging to Nanjappa Reddy; West by site no.18,

belonging to Raghunath Singh, North and South by Government

road. Admittedly neither of them is the suit property. The

first is in Malleswaram. The second is of course in
 12

Subedarpalya. What Gowramma inherited from her husband and

situated in Subedarpalya was thus site no.17, measuring 30' x

35' which was situated three sites away on the south of suit

site no.8 as is evident from Ex.P15. Defendant did not produce

the previous sale deed dated 28.8.1959, as it would apparently

show that Gowramma was not the owner of suit property (site

No.8), but some other property in the same area, that is plot

no.17. Thus Gowramma did not inherit site no.8 (corresponding

to municipal no.19 and subsequently referred to as no.18/1) of

Subedarpalya, Vyalikaval which is the suit property from her

husband, nor did she secure letters of administration in regard

to the said site. If Gowramma purported to sell a portion of

what was acquired by her under deed dated 28.8.1959 and the

order in Misc.C.444/1964, than it would mean that what was sold

to defendant was a portion of site No.17 measuring 25' x 40'

and not the suit property. Thus Ex.D1 dated 18.11.1985

produced by the defendant does not relate to suit property

(site no.8). Merely by changing the site number as 18/A, and

securing a sale deed from Gowramma, defendant cannot claim

title to suit property, as Gowramma never owned the suit

property. It is also of some interest to note that the sale

deed dated 18.11.1985 recites that Gowramma had already sold

portions of the plot (acquired under deed dated 28.8.1959 and

order in Misc.C No.444/1964) to others. If so, it is doubtful

anything remained in site no.17 for sale. But it is unnecessary
 13

to examine that aspect as we are not concerned with site no.17

at all in this case. The sale deed dated 18.11.1985 alleged to

have been executed by Gowramma (Ex.D1 is a certified copy) was

clearly a fabricated document in regard to an non-existing site

obviously with the intention of laying claim over the suit

property. The said deed did not convey any right, title or

interest to the defendant in respect of the suit property.

Re : Question (iii)

16. The plaintiffs contended that the plea of adverse

possession put forth by the defendant should fail in view of

the inconsistent stands taken by the defendant. It is pointed

out that the defendant had specifically contended that he was

the tenant of the schedule property from 1962 until he

purchased the property on 18.11.1985. According to plaintiffs,

this was a case of permissive possession and not adverse

possession. It is submitted that the defendant having put forth

a case of permissive possession, cannot put forth a plea of

adverse possession. It was submitted that even assuming that

there was a long and continuous possession for more than 12

years, that by itself would not constitute adverse possession

if it was either permissive possession or possession without

animus possidendi. According to them, the two pleas being

mutually inconsistent, the latter plea could not even begin to

operate until the former was renounced. Reliance was placed to
 14

the following observations of this Court in Mohan Lal (Dead

through LRs) vs. Mirza Abdul Gaffar - 1996 (1) SCC 639, made

while considering a case where the defendant raised the pleas

of permissive possession and adverse possession :

 "As regards the first plea, it is inconsistent with the
 second plea. Having come into possession under the
 (sale) agreement, he must disclaim his right thereunder
 and plead and prove assertion of his independent hostile
 adverse possession to the knowledge of the transferor or
 his successor in title or interest and that the latter
 had acquiesced to his illegal possession during the
 entire period of 12 years, i.e., up to completing the
 period his title by prescription nec vi, nec clam, nec
 precario (not by violence, not by stealth, not by
 permission). Since the appellant's claim is founded on
 section 53A (of Transfer of Property Act, 1882), it goes
 without saying that he admits by implication that he
 came into possession of land lawfully under the
 agreement and continued to remain in possession till
 date of the suit. Thereby the plea of adverse possession
 is not available to the appellant."
 [emphasis supplied]

17.The legal position is no doubt well settled. To establish a

claim of title by prescription, that is adverse possession for

12 years or more, the possession of the claimant must be

physical/actual, exclusive, open, uninterrupted, notorious and

hostile to the true owner for a period exceeding twelve years.

It is also well settled that long and continuous possession by

itself would not constitute adverse possession if it was either

permissive possession or possession without animus possidendi.

The pleas based on title and adverse possession are mutually

inconsistent and the latter does not begin to operate until the

former is renounced. Unless the person possessing the property

has the requisite animus to possess the property hostile to the
 15

title of the true owner, the period for prescription will not

commence. (Vide : Periasami vs. P. Periathambi - 1995 (6) SCC

523, Md. Mohammad Ali (dead) by LRs. vs. Jagdish Kalita - 2004

(1) SCC 271 and P.T. Munichikkanna Reddy vs. Revamma - 2007

(6) SCC 59).

18.We are however of the view that the decision in Mohan Lal

(supra) relied on by the plaintiffs is inapplicable, as the

defendant therein had pleaded that he was in possession, having

obtained possession in part performance of a sale agreement. As

the defendant therein admitted that he came into possession

lawfully under an agreement of sale and continued to remain in

such possession, there was no adverse possession. This case is

different, as the defendant did not contend that he entered

possession under or through the plaintiffs. His case was that

he was in possession as a tenant under Gowramma from 1962 and

he became the owner by purchasing the plot from Gowramma in

1985. He alternatively contended that if Gowramma did not have

title and consequently his claim based on title was rejected,

then having regard to the fact that he had been in possession

by setting up title in Gowramma and later in himself, his

possession was hostile to the true owner; and if he was able to

make out such hostile possession continued for more than 12

years, he could claim to have perfected his title by adverse

possession. There is considerable force in the contention of
 16

defendant provided he is able to establish adverse possession

for more than 12 years. When a person is in possession

asserting to be the owner, even if he fails to establish

his title, his possession would still be adverse to the

true owner. Therefore, the two pleas put forth by the

defendant in this case are not inconsistent pleas but

alternative pleas available on the same facts. Therefore, the

contention of the plaintiffs that the plea of adverse

possession is not available to defendant is rejected.

19. But then the question is if the defendant did not make out

his title, whether adverse possession of defendant for a period

of more than 12 years prior to the suit has been established?

The specific case of defendant was that he was the tenant of

Gowramma in regard to the schedule property (vacant site) from

the year 1962, initially on a monthly rent of Rs.30 which was

later increased to Rs.40/- and again to Rs. 60/- and that he

continued as such tenant till 18.11.1985 when he purchased the

suit property from Gowramma. We have already held that Gowramma

did not own the suit property, but apparently owned a property

three or four sites away from suit property. We have also held

that no title was conveyed to defendant under the deed dated

18.11.1985. The only material produced by defendant to show

that he was in possession from 1962, is the recital in the sale

deed dated 18.11.1985. As the sale deed dated 18.11.1985 is
 17

established to be a bogus and false document, the claim of

defendant that he was in occupation of the suit site as a

tenant from 1962, is liable to be rejected.

20.The only other evidence produced by defendant to prove his

possession is the judgment dated 18.9.1979 in the suit filed by

him against the Corporation of City of Bangalore in the year

1978, when it proposed to take action against him for

unauthorized construction in the schedule site. Here again, the

defendant did not produce either the plaint or the judgment.

The plaintiffs produced and marked the judgment as Ex.P13. The

said judgment shows that the defendant did not claim that the

property belonged to Gowramma or that he was the tenant of

Gowramma in the said site. On the other hand, he merely alleged

that he was in possession of plot No. 18A. The Bangalore City

Corporation denied his ownership and possession and contended

that he had no right, title, or interest in the suit property

and pointed out that he had carefully avoided any reference to

the source of his title or payment of property taxes in regard

to suit property and that there was no allegation that the

katha stood in his name. It also specifically contended that

defendant was living in the adjoining premises as tenant and

that he had recently constructed a cow-shed unauthorisedly in

the suit property with bamboos, zine sheets and thatched

leaves. The court by its judgment dated 18.9.1979 held that
 18

defendant herein was not the owner of the property. It also

held that he had not perfected his title by adverse possession.

But as defendant herein was found to be in possession of the

plot, the court granted an injunction against the Bangalore

City Corporation, on the ground that even a trespasser was

entitled to protect his possession. The description given by

defendant in regard to suit property is of some interest and is

extracted below : "Property adjoining site No.18 (numbered as

18/A for the sake of convenience) situated in First Street,

Subedarpalya, Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore 22, measuring 35 feet by

25 feet bounded on the East by first street, west by House of

Victor Julius, North by House of Hanumappa, and south by House

Venkatappa."

21. Plaintiffs examined Victor Julius, (who is described by

defendant as the western neighbour in the said injunction suit)

as PW2. He stated that he is the husband of Suwarna who owns

site no.14 situated to the South of site no.8 divided by a

conservancy lane. He stated that the defendant was a tenant

under one Muddukrishna in a portion of one of the three houses

situated in the adjoining site no.9 known as Perumal's

compound. He has further stated that about 10 years prior to

the date of his evidence (19.9.2002), the defendant put a house

in the back portion of site no.8. This clearly shows that the

defendant mixed up the description of two properties to create
 19

an imaginary property. The description in the injunction suit

shows that there was no site bearing the number `18A' and that

number was given by defendant only for convenience. It also

describes the plot as plot next to plot 18. Plot next to plot

No.18, would refer to plot 17 belonging to Gowramma and not

plot No.8 which is the suit property. It is also evident from

the evidence of Victor Julius that plot No.8 (suit property)

was to the North of his property with a conservancy road

separating the two properties. The schedule in the injunction

suit filed by defendant against Corporation of City of

Bangalore does not fit the suit property at all.

22.Plaintiffs also examined one Muniappa as PW3 who states that

he has been staying in the house opposite to site no.8 (on the

Northern side) since 1950 and that one Perumal was the owner of

the adjoining site no.9 wherein he had constructed three small

houses; that Perumal had sold the property no.9 to

Muddukrishna; and that defendant was staying in one of the

houses no.9 as a tenant of Muddukrishna. He also stated that

the defendant put up a small shed in a part of site no.8 which

was lying vacant, to tether his cows and subsequently, in the

year 1992 (during the pendency of the suit) constructed a house

in site no.8. He has also stated that Gowramma was earlier

living in the same locality four houses away.
 20

23. The judgment in O.S. No.578/1978 (Ex.P13) relied upon by

defendant and the evidence of PW2 and PW3 would clearly

establish that the defendant was residing in the property of

Muddukrishna (site No.9) adjoining the suit property as a

tenant, and that he had unauthorizedly put up a temporary

cattle shed in the suit property in or about the year 1978.

This may at best prove adverse possession of suit property by

defendant from 1978.

24. The defendant has not produced any evidence to show that

he was in possession of the suit property for a period of 12

years prior to the filing of the suit by plaintiff on

24.6.1987. Neither the correspondence between defendant and

City Survey Department subsequent to the suit nor the katha,

sanction of plan and tax receipts of the years 1991, 1992, and

2002 (all subsequent to the suit), are of any relevance. The

defendant did not examine either Gowramma or any other

neighbour to show that he was in continuous possession of the

suit property for more than 12 years. Except his vague and

interested statement which is proved to be false, there is no

evidence to show that he was in possession for a period of 12

years prior to the suit of plaintiffs.

25. When defendant claimed title and that was proved to be
 21

false or fabricated, then the burden is heavy upon him to prove

actual, exclusive, open, uninterrupted possession for 12 years.

In this case we have already held that he did not make out such

possession for 12 years prior to the suit. While the plaintiffs

have made out a clear and absolute title of the property, the

defendant has not been able to make out title or adverse

possession for more than 12 years. The High Court did not

examine any of these aspects and by a cursory judgment,

reversed the well considered judgment of the trial court.

Therefore the decision of High Court cannot be sustained.

26. We therefore allow this appeal with costs, set aside the

judgment and decree of the High Court and restore the judgment

and decree passed by the trial court.

 __________________J
 [R. V. Raveendran] __________________J
 [Harjit Singh Bedi]
New Delhi;
April 21, 2009.
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