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Victims of Uphaar Tragedy = apex court felt that there is no appropriate laws for dealing with this type of cases=These appeals relate to the fire at Uphaar Cinema Theatre in Green Park, South Delhi on 13.6.1997, resulting in the death of 59 patrons and injury to 103 patrons. During the matinee show of a newly released film on 13.6.1997, the patrons of the cinema hall which was full were engrossed in the film. Shortly after the interval, a transformer of Delhi Vidyut Board installed in the ground floor parking area of Uphaar Cinema, caught fire. The oil from the transformer leaked and found its way to the passage outside where many cars were parked. Two cars were parked immediately adjoining the entrance of the transformer room. The burning oil spread the fire to nearby cars and from then to the other parked cars. The burning of (i) the transformer oil (ii) the diesel and petrol from the parked vehicles (iii) the upholstery material, paint and other chemicals of the vehicles and (iv) foam and other articles stored in the said parking area generated huge quantity of fumes and smoke which consisted of carbon monoxide and several poisonous gases. As the ground floor parking was covered all round by walls, and the air was blowing in from the entry and exit points, the smoke and noxious fumes/smoke could not find its way out into open atmosphere and was blown towards the staircase leading to the balcony exit. On account of the chimney effect, the smoke travelled up. Smoke also travelled to the air-conditioner ducts and was sucked in and released into the auditorium. The smoke and the noxious fumes stagnated in the upper reaches of the auditorium, particularly in the balcony area. By then the electricity went off =(a) The compensation awarded by the High Court in the case of death is reduced from Rs.18 lacs to Rs.10 lacs (in the case of those aged more than 20 years) and Rs.15 lacs to Rs. 7.5 lacs (in the case of those aged 20 years and less). The said sum is payable to legal representatives of the deceased to be determined by a brief and summary enquiry by the Registrar General (or nominee of learned Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court). (b) The compensation of Rs.One lakh awarded by the High Court in the case of each of the 103 injured persons is affirmed. (c) The interest awarded from the date of the writ petition on the aforesaid sums at the rate of 9% per annum is affirmed. (d) If the legal representatives of any deceased victim are not satisfied with the compensation awarded, they are permitted to file an application for compensation with supporting documentary proof (to show the age and the income), before the Registrar General, Delhi High Court. If such an application if filed within three months, it shall not be rejected on the ground of delay. The Registrar General or such other Member of Higher Judiciary nominated by the learned Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the High Court shall decide those applications in accordance with paras above and place the matter before the Division Bench of the

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 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

 CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION

 CIVIL APPEAL NOS 7114-15 OF 2003

Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi ... Appellant

 Vs.

Association of Victims of Uphaar Tragedy & Ors. ... Respondents

With CA 7116/2003 & CA 6748/2004 

 J U D G M E N T

R.V. Raveendran, J.

 These appeals are filed against the judgment dated 24.4.2003 of a 

division bench of the Delhi High Court in the Uphaar Cinema tragedy. CA 

No.7114-15/2003 is by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (for short `MCD'). 

CA No.7116/2003 is by the Licensing Authority (Commissioner of Police). CA 

No. 6748/2004 is by M/s.Ansal Theatre and Clubotels Pvt. Ltd., the owners of 

the Uphaar Cinema Theatre (for short the `theatre owner' or `Licensee).

 2

2. These appeals relate to the fire at Uphaar Cinema Theatre in Green Park, 

South Delhi on 13.6.1997, resulting in the death of 59 patrons and injury to 103 

patrons. During the matinee show of a newly released film on 13.6.1997, the 

patrons of the cinema hall which was full were engrossed in the film. Shortly 

after the interval, a transformer of Delhi Vidyut Board installed in the ground 

floor parking area of Uphaar Cinema, caught fire. The oil from the transformer 

leaked and found its way to the passage outside where many cars were parked. 

Two cars were parked immediately adjoining the entrance of the transformer 

room. The burning oil spread the fire to nearby cars and from then to the other 

parked cars. The burning of (i) the transformer oil (ii) the diesel and petrol from 

the parked vehicles (iii) the upholstery material, paint and other chemicals of 

the vehicles and (iv) foam and other articles stored in the said parking area 

generated huge quantity of fumes and smoke which consisted of carbon 

monoxide and several poisonous gases. As the ground floor parking was 

covered all round by walls, and the air was blowing in from the entry and exit 

points, the smoke and noxious fumes/smoke could not find its way out into 

open atmosphere and was blown towards the staircase leading to the balcony 

exit. On account of the chimney effect, the smoke travelled up. Smoke also 

travelled to the air-conditioner ducts and was sucked in and released into the 

auditorium. The smoke and the noxious fumes stagnated in the upper reaches of 

the auditorium, particularly in the balcony area. By then the electricity went off 

 3

and the exit signs were also not operating or visible. The patrons in the balcony 

who were affected by the fumes, were groping in the dark to get out. The 

central gangway in the balcony that led to the Entrance foyer could have been 

an effective and easy exit, but it was closed and bolted from outside, as that 

door was used only for entry into the balcony from the foyer. The patrons 

therefore groped through towards the only exit situated on the left side top 

corner of the balcony. The staircase outside the balcony exit which was the only 

way out was also full of noxious fumes and smoke. They could not get out of 

the staircase into the foyer as the door was closed and locked. This resulted in 

death of 59 persons in the balcony and stairwell due to asphyxiation by inhaling 

the noxious fumes/smoke. 103 patrons were also injured in trying to get out.

3. First Respondent is an association of the victims of Uphaar Tragedy (for 

short the `Victims Association' or `Association'). The members of the 

Association are either those who were injured in the fire or are relatives/legal 

heirs of those who were killed in the fire. The Association filed a writ petition 

before the Delhi High Court. They highlighted the shocking state of affairs 

existing in the cinema building at the time of the incident and the inadequate 

safety arrangements made by the owners. They described the several violations 

by the owners of the statutory obligations placed on theatre owners under law, 

for prevention of fire hazards in public places. They highlighted the acts of 

 4

omission and commission by the public authorities concerned namely Delhi 

Vidyut Board (`DVB' for short), MCD Fire Force and the Licensing Authority. 

They alleged that these authorities not only failed in the discharge of their 

statutory obligations, but acted in a manner which was prejudicial to public 

interest by failing to observe the standards set under the statute and the rules 

framed for the purpose of preventing fire hazards; that they issued licenses and 

permits in complete disregard of the mandatory conditions of inspection which 

were required to ensure that the minimum safeguards were provided in the 

cinema theatre. They pointed out that most of the cinema theatres were and are 

being permitted to run without any proper inspection and many a time without 

the required licenses, permissions and clearances. They therefore, sought 

adequate compensation for the victims of the tragedy and punitive damages 

against the theatre owner, DVB, MCD, Fire Force and the Licensing Authority 

for showing callous disregard to their statutory obligations and to the 

fundamental and indefeasible rights guaranteed under Article 21 of the 

Constitution of India, of the theatre going public, in failing to provide safe 

premises, free from reasonably foreseeable hazards. They claimed 

compensation and other reliefs as under:-

(a) award damages of Rs.11.8 crores against the respondents, jointly and 

severally, to the legal heirs of the victims who lost their lives (listed in 

 5

Annexure B of the writ petition) through the Association with the direction to 

equally distribute the same to the first degree heirs of all the victims; 

(b) award damages of Rs.10.3 crores against the respondents, jointly and 

severally, to the injured (listed in Annexure C to the writ petition) to be 

distributed evenly or in such manner as may be considered just and proper; 

(c) award punitive damages of Rs.100 crores to the association for setting 

up and running a Centralized Accident and Trauma Services and other allied 

services in the city of Delhi; and to direct Union of India to create a fund for 

that purpose;

(d) to monitor the investigation from time to time, to ensure that no person 

guilty of any of the offences is able to escape the clutches of law and that the 

investigation is carried out as expeditiously as possible in a free and fair 

manner; and

(e) direct the Union of India to ensure that no cinema hall in the country is 

allowed to run without license granted after strictly observing all the mandatory 

conditions prescribed under the laws and to further direct them to stop the 

operation of all cinema halls and to permit the operation only after verification 

of the existence of a valid license/permit by the licensing authority, under the 

Cinematograph Act.

Relevant Legal Provisions

4. The Cinematograph Act, 1952 provides for regularization of exhibition of 

Cinemas. Section 10 provides that a cinema theatre cannot be run without 

 6

obtaining license from the Licensing Authority. Section 11 provides that the 

Licensing Authority shall be the District Magistrate. After the coming into force 

of the Commissioner of Police system in Delhi in 1978, the Commissioner of 

Police was notified as the licensing authority under the proviso to section 11 of 

the Act. Licenses to be granted to a cinema theatre under section 10 could be 

either annual or temporary. All cinema theatres in Delhi were required to get 

their licenses renewed annually by moving an application in writing to the 

licensing authority. While granting renewal, the licensing authority was 

required to satisfy itself that the licensee had complied with the provisions of 

the Cinematograph Act and the Delhi Cinematograph Rules framed thereunder. 

5. When the cinema theatre was constructed in the year 1973, the Delhi 

Cinematograph Rules, 1953 were regulating the procedure of granting licences, 

inspection and conditions of licences. After the coming into force of the 

Commissioner of Police system, the Delhi Cinematograph Rules 1983 came 

into force. Rule 3 provides that license shall be granted in respect of a building 

which is permanently equipped for Cinematograph exhibition and in respect of 

which the requirements set forth in first schedule of the Rules were fulfilled. 

The first schedule to the Rules laid down the specifications with which 

compliance must be made before any annual license was granted in respect of 

any building. Besides other things, the schedule lays down specifications 

 7

regarding number of persons accommodated in the cinema hall and the manner 

in which the seats can be provided therein. The 1953 Rules insofar as they are 

relevant for accommodation, sitting, the width of gangways, stairways, exits, 

are extracted below: 

 (1) Accommodation - The total number of spectators 

 accommodated in the building shall not exceed twenty per hundred 

 square feet of the area available for sitting and standing or twenty 

 per 133.5 square feet of over all area of the floor space in the 

 auditorium. . x x x

 (2) Seating - (1) The seating in the building shall be arranged 

 so that there is free excess to exits.

 (3) Gangway - (1) Gangway not less than forty-four inches 

 wide shall be provided in the building as follows :-

 (a) Down each side of the auditorium.

 (b) Down the centre of the seating accommodation at intervals of 

 not more than twenty-five feet.

 (c) Parallel to the line of the seating so as to provide direct access 

 to exits, provided that not more than one gangway for every ten 

 rows shall be required.

 (2) All gangways, exits and the treads of steps and stairways shall 

 be maintained with non-slippery surfaces. x x x

 (4) The exits and the gangways and passages leading to exits shall 

 be kept clear of any obstruction other than rope barriers provided 

 in accordance with sub-rule (6). On no account shall extra seats be 

 placed in the gangways or spectators be allowed to stand in the 

 gangways at the time of performances in such a way as to block or 

 effectively reduce their width. x x x 

 8

(4) Stairways - (1) There shall be at least two stairways each 

not less than four feet wide to provide access to any gallery or 

upper floor in the building which is intended for use by the public. 

 x x x x

(5) No stairways shall discharge into a passage or corridor against 

or across the direction of exit.

(5) Exits : - (1) Every public portion of the building shall be 

provided with an adequate number of clearly indicated exits 

placed in such positions and so maintained as to afford the 

audience ample means of safe and speedy egress.

(2) In the auditorium there shall be atleast one exit from every tier, 

floor, or gallery for every hundred persons accommodated or part 

thereof :

Provided further that an exit on or by way of stage or platform 

shall not be reckoned as one of exits required by this rule.

(3) Every exit from the auditorium shall provide a clear opening 

space of not less than seven feet high and five feet wide.

(4) Exits from the auditorium shall be suitably spaced along both 

sides and along the back thereof and shall deliver into two or more 

different thorough fares or open space from which there are at all 

times free means of rapid dispersal.

(5) Every passage or corridor leading from an exit in the 

auditorium to a final place or exit from the building shall be of 

such width as will in the opinion of the licensing authority enable 

the persons who are likely to use it in an emergency to leave the 

building without danger of crowding or congestion. At no point 

shall any such passage or corridor be less than five feet wide and it 

shall not diminish in width in the direction of the final place of 

exit.

(6) The combined width of the final place of exit from the building 

shall be such that there are at least five feet of exit width for every 

hundred persons that can be accommodated in the building.

 9

(7) All exit doors shall open outwards and shall be so fitted that 

when opened they do not obstruct any gangway, passage, corridor, 

stairway or landing.

(8) All exit doors and doors through which the public have to pass 

on the way to the open air shall be available for exit during the 

whole time that the public are in the building and during such time 

shall not be locked or bolted.

(9) All exits from the auditorium and all doors or openings (other 

than the main entrance) intended for egress from the building shall 

be clearly indicated by the word "EXIT" in block letters, which 

shall not be less than seven inches high and shall be so displayed 

as to be clearly visible in the light as well as in the dark.

(10) All other doors of openings shall be so constructed as to be 

clearly distinguishable from exits. They may be indicated by the 

words "NO THOROUGHFARE" arranged as in the figure below, 

but no notice bearing the words "NO EXIT" shall be used in any 

part of the building.

(6) Parking Arrangements - (1) Such arrangements shall be 

made for the parking of motor cars and other vehicles in the 

vicinity of the buildings as the licensing authority may require.

(2) No vehicle shall be parked or allowed to stand in such a way 

as to obstruct exits or impede the rapid dispersal of persons 

accommodated, in the event of fire or panic. 

(7) Fire Precautions - (1) Fire extinguishing appliances 

suitable to the character of the building and of a patron, class and 

capacity approved by the licensing authority shall be provided as 

prescribed by him; these appliances shall be disposed to his 

satisfaction so as to be readily available for use in case of fire in 

any part of the building.

(2) There shall always be sufficient means of dealing with the fire 

readily available within the enclosure and these shall include a 

damp blanket, a portals Chemical fire extinguisher and two buckets 

of dry sand.

 10

 (3) All fire extinguishing appliances shall at all times be 

 maintained in proper working order and available for instant use, 

 and all Chemical fire extinguishers shall be capable of 

 withstanding a pressure of not less than 250 lbs. square inch.

 (4) During an exhibition all fire extinguishing appliances shall be 

 in charge of some person or persons specially appointed for this 

 purpose. Such persons need not be employed exclusively in 

 looking after the fire appliances but they must not be given any 

 other work during an exhibition which would take them away from 

 the building or otherwise prevent them from being immediately 

 available in case of danger or alarm of fire.

 (emphasis supplied)

INQUIRY REPORTS

6. Immediately after the incident, the Lt.Governor constituted an enquiry 

committee under Mr.Naresh Kumar (DC, South) to investigate into the incident. 

He secured several reports and in turn submitted an exhaustive report on the 

calamity. When the investigation was transferred to CBI on 26.7.1997, they also 

secured several reports. The court appointed Commissioners also gave a report. 

These reports, enumerated below, were considered by the High Court: 

 (i) Report dated 16.6.1997 issued by Delhi Fire Service.

 (ii) Report dated 25.6.1997 of Mr.K.L Grover, Electrical Inspector 

 (Labour Department) submitted to Mr.Naresh Kumar.

 (iii) Report dated 25.6.1997 submitted by Mr.R.K. Bhattacharya, 

 Executive Engineer (Building) South Zone, MCD to Mr.Naresh 

 Kumar.

 11

 (iv) Report dated 26.6.1997 submitted by the Fire Research Laboratory, 

 Central Building Research Institute to Mr. Naresh Kumar. 

 (v) Report dated 27.6.1997 and 11.8.1997 of Central Forensic Science 

 Laboratory to Station House Officer.

 (vi) Report dated 29.6.1997 by Mr.K.V. Singh, Executive Engineer 

 (Electrical) PWD, to Mr. Naresh Kumar.

 (vii) Report dated 2.7.1997 by Mr. M.L.Kothari, Electrical Deptt., IIT 

 affirming the observations of Mr.K.V. Singh.

 (viii) Panchnama dated 2.8.1997 prepared by Sr. Engineer, PWD.

 (ix) Inspection-cum-Scrutiny Report dated 11.8.1997 by Eng.Deptt. of 

 MCD.

 (x) Toxicology Report dated 18.9.1997 by AIIMS.

 (xi) Joint Inspection Report dated 7.10.1997 by Representative of 

 Licensing Authority, MCD, Delhi Fire Service, Electrical Inspector, 

 and General Manger of Uphaaar Cinema.

 (xii) Naresh Kumar Report.

 (xiii) Court Commissioner's Report dated 30.11.2000.

Decision of High Court

7. The High Court after exhaustive consideration of the material including 

the aforesaid reports, recorded statements and other material, allowed the writ 

petition by order dated 24.4.2003. In the said order, the High Court identified 

the causes that led to the calamity and persons responsible therefor. It held the 

theatre owner, DVB, MCD and the Licensing Authority responsible for the fire 

 12

tragedy. It exonerated the Delhi Fire Force. We summarise below the 

acts/omissions attributed to each of them by the High Court.

Acts/omissions by DVB

8. DVB violated several provisions of the Electricity Act and the Rules. It 

had not obtained the approval of the Electrical Inspector for installation of the 

transformer as required under the Rules. The Rules required that the floor of the 

transformer room should be at a higher level than the surrounding areas and 

there should be a channel for draining of oil with a pit so that any leaking oil 

would not spread outside, increasing the fire hazard, and also to ensure that 

water did not enter the transformer. The transformer had to be checked 

periodically and subjected to regular maintenance and should have appropriate 

covers. The connecting of wires should be by crimping and not by hammering. 

The negligence on the part of DVB in maintaining the transformers and repairs 

led to the root cause of the incident, namely the starting of the fire. 

Acts/Omissions of owner

9. Though the starting of the fire in the transformer happened due to the 

negligence of DVB, but if the owner had taken the necessary usual precautions 

and security measures expected of a theatre owner, even if the transformer had 

caught fire, it would not have spread to nearby cars or other stored articles nor 

 13

would the balcony and staircases become a death trap on account of the fumes. 

The following acts/omissions were attributed to the theatre owner :

(i) Parapet wall: The owner had violated the municipal bye-laws by making 

several unauthorised alterations in the structure which all contributed to the 

incident. In particular, the violation by the owner in raising a parapet wall 

which was shown to be of three feet height in the sanctioned plan till the roof 

level had disastrous effect when the fire broke out. The stilt floor plan 

(sanctioned in 1972) showed that what was sanctioned was a three feet high 

parapet wall along the ramp which was situated to the rear of the transformer 

room. If the said parapet wall had been constructed only to a height of three feet 

as shown in the sanctioned plan, the entire space above it would have been open 

and in the event of any fire in the transformer room or anywhere in the stilt 

floor, the fumes/smoke could have dispersed into the atmosphere. But at some 

point of time in or around 1973, the Licensee had raised the said three feet wall 

upto the ceiling height of twelve feet with the result the stilt floor (parking area) 

stood converted into a totally enclosed area. But for the construction of the 

parapet wall to ceiling height, the fumes/smoke from the transformer room and 

from the parking area where the cars were burning, would have gone out of the 

stilt floor into the open atmosphere. The unauthorized raising of this wall 

prevented the smoke from getting dispersed and forced it to seek a way up 

 14

through the stairwell causing the chimney effect and also entered the balcony 

through the air conditioning system resulting in the concentration of the smoke 

in the balcony area of the theatre and the stairwell itself, thereby playing a 

major role in spreading the fire/smoke to balcony area and stairwell. The Court 

found that the apparent intention of raising the height of the wall from three to 

twelve feet was to use the area between the wall and the transformer room for 

commercial purposes.

(ii) Closing one exit in balcony and reducing the width of gangways: Making 

alterations in the balcony, contrary to the Cinematograph Rules by closing the 

gangway/aisle on one side and closing/blocking one of the exits by construction 

of an owner's box in front of the right side exit (The details of these alterations 

are given in paras 11 to 14 below). The said acts impeded the free and quick 

exit of the occupants of balcony as everyone had to use the exit on the left side. 

The delay made them victims of asphyxiation due to the poisonous/noxious 

gases.

(iii) Illegal parking in stilt floor: The stilt floor where the three electrical 

rooms (generator room, HT room and LT room) were situated, had an 

earmarked parking space for 15 cars. The sanctioned plan clearly contemplated 

a passage way for movement of cars of a width of about 16 ft. The sanctioned 

plan required that the area in front of the three electrical rooms should be left 

 15

free as a part of that passage way and no parking was contemplated in front of 

the said three rooms. However the Licensee was permitting the patrons to park 

their cars in a haphazard manner, particularly in the central passage. Instead of 

restricting the cars to be parked in that floor to 15 and leaving the central 

passage, in particular the passage in front of the three electrical rooms free for 

maneuvering the cars, the owner permitted the entire passage to be used for 

parking the vehicles, thereby increasing the parking capacity from 15 to 35. 

This made exiting of vehicles difficult and until and unless the vehicles in the 

passage were removed, other parked vehicles could not get out. It also made it 

difficult for any patrons to use the said area as an exit in an emergency. Parking 

of vehicles in front of the three electrical rooms increased the fire hazard. If the 

passageway between two parked row of cars in the stilt floor had been kept free 

of parking as per the sanctioned plan and consequently if no cars had been 

parked in front of the transformer room, the fire in the transformer room would 

not have spread to the cars and the entire calamity could have been avoided. On 

that day, a contessa car parked next to the transformer room in the passageway 

first caught fire. (Though the sanctioned parking plan showed that the stilt floor 

was to be used for parking only fifteen cars with a middle passageway of fifteen 

feet width left free for movement of cars), the parking area was used for parking 

as many as 35 cars. As the parking area was overcrowded with haphazardly 

parked cars, the entire passageway meant for movement of cars was blocked. 

 16

Not following the provisions of Electricity Act and Electricity Rules in regard 

to the construction of the transformer room with required safeguard and 

permitting haphazard parking of large number of vehicles, particularly near the 

transformer room started the fire and spread it.

(iv) If the owners had not unjustly and by misrepresenting the facts, obtained 

an interim stay in the year 1983 which continued up to the date of the incident 

and as a consequence though the irregularities and violations of safety measures 

had been noticed and brought to its notice, they had not rectified them and the 

continued violations resulted in the incident.

Acts/omissions of MCD

10. The sanctioned plan issued in 1972 to the Licensee was for construction 

of a three feet high parapet wall. Though the Licensee raised the said wall up to 

ceiling height of 12 feet in violation of the Rules, the MCD failed to point out 

this violation between 1994 to 1997 and take action against the theatre owners.

MCD was required to give a NOC after inspecting the building, certifying that 

there was no violation of the building bye-laws or unauthorized construction, 

every year, from the year 1994 so that licence should be renewed. MCD failed 

 17

to make such inspections. On the other hand it gave a NOC for grant of licence 

in the year 1996.

Acts/omissions of the Licensing Authority

11. The licensing authority owed a duty to ensure that the cinema theatre 

complied with all the requirements of the Cinematograph Act and Rules and to 

obtain the necessary NOCs from MCD, Fire Force and Electrical Inspector. If 

there was any violation, it ought not to have renewed the licence. The Licensing 

Authority failed to note the violations/deviations and take remedial action. Even 

though a stay order had been issued by the High Court on 28.6.1983, in a writ 

petition challenging the suspension of licences, the said stay order did not come 

in the way of the Licensing Authority making appropriate inspections and if 

necessary to take action to suspend the licence or seek modification of the 

interim order. The Licensing Authority did not discharge its statutory functions 

and went on issuing temporary permits for periods of two months each, for a 

period of more than 13 years when the Rules clearly contemplated that the 

temporary permits could not be renewed for a period of more than six months.

Conclusion of High Court

Closing of one Balcony Exit and narrowing of gangway 

 18

12. We may only refer to the unauthorized closure of an exit from balcony 

and reduction of width of gangways by addition of seats in greater detail to 

have a complete picture. Uphaar Cinema was inaugurated on 27.4.1973. In the 

year 1975, there was a general cut of 10% value of the cinema ticket rates fixed 

by the Delhi Administration. The licensees made a representation to the Delhi 

Administration alleging that the expenses had gradually gone up during the 

course of years after the rates were fixed and that even the existing rates were 

inadequate to meet the operating costs. The representation of the Association of 

Motion Pictures Exhibitors was considered and the Delhi Administration agreed 

to relax the Rules and allowed the licensees to have additional seats (in addition 

to the existing seats) in their cinema halls to make good the loss caused to the 

licensees by the reduction in the rates by 10%. Uphaar Cinema was permitted to 

add 43 seats in balcony and 57 seats in the main hall, as per a notification dated 

30.9.1976 issued by the licensing authority. As a consequence, 43 seats were 

added in the balcony and 57 seats were added in the main hall of Uphaar 

Theatre. The Chief Fire Officer inspected the theatre and submitted a report that 

the addition of seats was a fire hazard. The Lt. Governor therefore issued a 

notification dated 27.7.1979 cancelling with immediate effect the earlier 

notifications by which relaxation had been granted to the licensees (including 

Uphaar Cinema) by allowing them to increase the number of seats. The said 

notification dated 27.7.1979 was challenged by the Licensees by filing a writ 

 19

petition in the Delhi High Court. The said writ petition was disposed of by a 

Division Bench of the High Court by its judgment dated 29.11.1979 (reported 

in Isher Das Sahni & Bros. v. The Delhi Administration - AIR 1980 Delhi 147) 

holding that the Delhi Administration could not have granted such relaxations if 

such relaxations would have contravened the Rules to an extent as to increase 

the risk of fire hazard or to expose the spectators to unhealthy conditions. The 

High Court further held that the opinion and advice of the fire and health 

authorities had to be taken before grant of any relaxation. The High Court noted 

the following view of Chief Fire Officer showing reluctance to advise 

relaxation in the rules as the safety of the visitors to the theatres would be 

affected thereby:

 "Even under the normal circumstances the exit facilities are 

 seriously hampered by people rushing and it is felt that in case of 

 panicky situation of a minor nature, the people will be put to great 

 difficulty which may even result in stampede. In the circumstances, I 

 feel that it would not be advisable to allow extra seats required by 

 the Managements. In a few theaters, however, the difficulty may not 

 be so acute. If at all any relaxation has to be considered under 

 unavoidable circumstances, our reaction to the proposals but forward 

 by the management of a few cinema houses may kindly be seen in 

 the enclosure".

The High Court also noted that Chief Fire Officer later modified and toned 

down his report when he was informed by the Delhi Administration that 

additional seats were permitted to compensate the loss on account of reduction 

 20

in cinema fares. The High Court noted that ultimately the Delhi Administration, 

Chief Fire Officer and Municipal Corporation agreed to some relaxation and 

disposed of the petitions directing the Delhi Administration to apply their mind 

and decide how many of the additional seats were in accordance with the Rules 

and could be permitted to be retained. The effect of the order was that only 

those additional seats which contravened the Rules had to be removed and 

cancellation of the Notification dated 30.9.1976 did not result in automatic 

removal of all additional seats.

13. In the meanwhile by order dated 6.10.1978, the Entertainment Tax 

Officer permitted Uphaar Cinema to install a box with eight seats for use 

without tickets (for complimentaries). This was not however specifically 

brought to the notice of the Licensing Authority nor his permission sought. 

These additional seats were not sanctioned by the Licensing Authority. In 

pursuance of such permission the Licensee closed the exit on the right side of 

the balcony for installing the box with eight seats. The central access was used 

exclusively for entry. As a result the only exit from the balcony was the one at 

the extreme left top corner of the balcony.

14. After the decision dated 29.11.1979, a show cause notice was issued to 

reconsider the addition of 100 seats and by order dated 22.12.1979, the DCP 

 21

(Licensing) held that six additional seats in the balcony (seat No.8 in rows `A' 

to `F') and 56 additional seats in the main hall were blocking the gangway and 

causing obstruction to egress of patrons and directed their removal so that the 

original vertical gangway could be restored. However on a subsequent 

application dated 29.7.1980 by the Licensee by order dated 4.10.1980, the 

Licensing Authority permitted installation of 15 additional seats in the balcony, 

that is two additional rows of 3 seats each in front of the exit in balcony, 

addition of one seat against back wall next to seat no.38 and eight additional 

seats by adding one seat in each of rows `A' to `H'. As a result (i) the seating 

capacity which was 287 plus Box of 14 went up to 302 plus two Boxes (14+8), 

(ii) the right side exit was closed and a box of 8 seats added; (iii) the right side 

vertical gangway was closed and a new gangway created between seat Numbers 

(8) and (9); (iv) the width of the gangways leading to exit from balcony was 

reduced.

15. What is significant is while obtaining permission of Licensing Authority 

for increasing the capacity from 287 to 302, he was not informed about addition 

of one box of 8 seats and closing of one exit. As per the 1953 Rules, there 

should be one exit for every 100 seats. Under the 1981 Rules, this became 

minimum of one exit for every 150 persons. Originally there was one central 

entry/exit point between foyer to balcony and two exits at the two top corners of 

 22

the balcony. After the modifications and increase in seats, the central door 

became an exclusive entry from the foyer; the right side corner of the balcony 

was permanently closed by installation of the special box of eight seats and 

there was only one exit for the entire balcony with a capacity of 302 persons, 

situated at the left side top corner of the balcony. This was the major cause for 

the tragedy, as when lights went off and fumes surrounded, the balcony became 

a death trap. The left (West) exit from the balcony led to the staircase leading to 

the parking area. Patrons from the balcony who entered the entire stairwell also 

died, as it was full of noxious fumes entering from the stilt parking area on 

account of the chimney effect. The patrons were denied access to the right 

(East) exit because of the installation of the private box and the closing of right 

(East) exit, which would have otherwise provided an access to the other 

staircase with lift well which led to the ticket foyer outside the parking area and 

therefore free from noxious fumes/smoke. The report shows that the exit light, 

ground light, side light, emergency lights and public address system were all 

non-functional, adding to the delay, confusion and chaos, making it very 

difficult to get out of the balcony which was dark and full of smoke/fumes.

16. The High Court held that the theatre owner (Licencee), DVB, MCD and 

Licensing Authority being responsible for the incident were jointly and 

severally liable to compensate the victims. The High Court directed payment of 

 23

compensation to the legal heirs of 59 patrons who died, and also to the 103 

persons who were injured. The High Court determined a uniform compensation 

of Rs.18 lakhs payable in the case of deceased who were aged more than 20 

years, and 15 lakhs each in the case of those deceased who were less than 20 

years of age. It also awarded a compensation of Rs.1,00,000 to each of the 103 

injured. It also awarded interest at 9% per annum on the compensation from the 

date of filing of writ petition to date of payment. The High Court apportioned 

the liability inter se among the four in the ratio of 55% payable by the theatre 

owners and 15% each payable by the Delhi Vidyut Board, MCD and the 

Licensing Authority. The High Court directed that while paying compensation 

the ex-gratia amount wherever paid (Rs.1,00,000 in the case of death, Rs.50,000 

in case of grievous injuries and Rs.25000 for simple injuries) should be 

deducted. The High Court directed that the Licensee shall pay Rs.2,50,00,000/- 

(Rupees two and half crores) as punitive damages (being the income earned 

from installing extra 52 seats unauthorizedly during the period 1979 to 1996. 

The said amount was ordered to be paid to Union of India for setting up a 

Central Accident Trauma Centre. 

17. The High Court approved the recommendations of Naresh Kumar 

Committee which were extracted in detail in the judgment of the High Court. 

The High Court also made the following recommendations: 

 24

A) Several requests by the fire authorities for adequate maintenance and 

timely upgradation of the equipment have floundered in the bureaucratic 

quagmire. When lives of citizens are involved the requirement of those dealing 

in public safety should be urgently processed and no such administration 

process of clearance in matters of public safety should take more than 90 days. 

The entertainment tax generates sufficient revenue for the administration to 

easily meet the financial requirements of bodies which are required to safeguard 

public health.

B) Considering the number of theatres and auditoria functioning in the city, 

sufficient staff to inspect and enforce statutory norms should be provided by the 

Delhi Administration.

C) The Delhi police should only be concerned with law and order and 

entrusting of responsibility of licensing of cinema theatres on the police force is 

an additional burden upon the already over burdened city police force.

D) The inspection and enforcement of the statutory norms should be in the 

hands of one specialized multi disciplinary body which should deal with all 

aspects of the licensing of public places. It should contain experts in the field of 

(a) fire prevention (b) electric supply (c) law and order (d) municipal sanctions 

(e) urban planning (f) public health and (g) licensing. Such a single 

multidisciplinary body would ensure that the responsibility of public safety is in 

the hands of a body which could be then held squarely responsible for any lapse 

and these would lead to a situation which would avoid the passing of the buck. 

The existing position of different bodies looking after various components of 

public safety cannot be continued. A single body would also ensure speedier 

processing of applications for licenses reducing red tape and avoidable 

complications and inevitable delay.

 25

E) All necessary equipment should be provided to ambulances and the fire 

brigade including gas masks, search lights, map of water tanks located in the 

area including the existence of the location of the underground water tanks. 

Such water tank locations should be available to the firemen working in the 

area. The workshop for the fire tenders service and maintenance should also be 

fully equipped with all spares and other equipment and requisition made by the 

fire brigade should receive prompt and immediate attention. There should also 

be adequate training imparted to the policemen to control the crowd in the event 

of a disaster as it is found that onlookers are a hindrance to rescue operations. 

Similarly all ambulances dealing with disaster management should be fully 

equipped.

18. The Vidyut Board has accepted the judgment and has deposited 15% of 

the total compensation. The theatre owner, Delhi Police and MCD have not 

accepted the judgment and have filed these appeals. CAs. 7114-7115/2003 has 

been filed by the MCD denying any liability. The Licensing Authority has filed 

CA No.7116/2003 contending that the theatre owners should be made liable for 

payment of the entire compensation. The theatre owner has filed CA 

NO.6748/2004 urging two contentions, namely, their share of liability should 

have been far less than 55% and the rates of compensation fixed were 

excessive. 

 26

19. At the outset it should be noted that the causes for the calamity have been 

very exhaustively considered by the High Court and it has recorded a 

categorical finding about the negligence and the liability on the part of the 

licensee and the DVB. On the examination of the records, we agree with the 

High Court that such a catastrophic incident would not have happened if the 

parapet wall had not been raised to the roof level. If the said wall had not been 

raised, the fumes would have dispersed in the atmospheric air. Secondly if one 

of the exits in the balcony had not been blocked by construction of an owner's 

box and if the right side gangway had not been closed by fixing seats, the 

visitors in the balcony could have easily dispersed through the other gangway 

and exit into the unaffected staircase. Thirdly if the cars had not been parked in 

the immediate vicinity of the transformer room and appropriate pit had been 

made for draining of transformer oil, the oil would not have leaked into the 

passage nor would the burning oil lighted the cars, as the fire would have been 

restricted only to the transformer room. Even if one of the three causes for 

which the theatre owner was responsible, was absent, the calamity would not 

have occurred. The Licensee could not point out any error in those findings. 

Ultimately therefore the contention of the licensee before us was not to deny 

liability but only to reduce the quantum of liability fastened by the High Court 

and to increase the share of the liability of the three statutory authorities. DVB, 

as noticed above, has not challenged the decision of the High Court. Therefore, 

 27

we do not propose to reconsider and re-examine or re-assess the material 

considered and the finding recorded with reference to the Licensee and DVB. 

Therefore the incident is not disputed. The deaths and injuries are not in 

dispute. The identity of persons who died and who were injured is not in 

dispute. The fact that the Licensee and DVB are responsible is not in dispute. 

The limited questions that arise are whether the MCD and the Licensing 

Authority could have been made liable to pay compensation and whether the 

percentage of liability of the Licensee should be reduced from 55%.

20. On the contentions urged the following questions arise for consideration:

 (i) Whether MCD and Licensing Authority could be made liable to pay 

 compensation to the victims?

 (ii) What should be apportionment of liability?

 (iii) Whether compensation awarded is excessive?

 (iv) Whether award of punitive damages of Rs.2.5 crores against the 

 Licensee was justified? 

We will deal with questions (i) and (ii) together and questions (iii) and (iv) 

together as they are interconnected. 

Contentions of MCD

21. MCD submitted that the writ petition focuses on the violations by the 

licensee, the negligence on the part of the DVB, Fire Force and the licencing 

 28

authority; no specific role assigned to the MCD in regard to the incident; that 

the writ petition deals with the responsibilities of the owners (licensees) (paras 

2 to 6 and 15); Delhi Vidyut Board (para 7); licencing authority - Delhi Police 

(paras 8 to 14) and seeks to make them liable. The role of Delhi Fire Services 

(para 16) is referred. Role of Licensing Authority, Delhi Police (para 17), role 

of medical facilities managed by health authorities (paras 18 to 20) and the 

cover-up operations by the owners and the role of the licensing authority; that 

except a general averment that various instrumentalities of State including 

MCD are liable to pay damages, no specific averment of allegation has been 

made against MCD. It is also submitted that Mr. Naresh Kumar, Deputy 

Commissioner (South) NCT who was appointed by the Lt. Governor 

immediately after the incident to conduct an enquiry, had submitted a report 

which also primarily deals with the omissions and commissions of the Licensee, 

the Licencing Authority, Delhi Fire Force, Delhi Vidyut Board and does not fix 

any specific responsibility on MCD. Similarly the report of the Commissioners 

appointed by the Delhi High Court (consisting of an Advocate and Professors 

from engineering institutions) submitted its report dated 30.11.2000 which also 

does not fix any liability on MCD. 

22. MCD next pointed out that even the impugned judgment of Delhi High 

Court while exhaustively covering the roles of the Licensee, Vidyut Board, the 

 29

licensing authority, Delhi Fire Force, makes only a passing reference to MCD. 

The High Court holds MCD liable only on the ground that it did not take any 

action in regard to the unauthorised raising of parapet wall adjoining the 

transformer from three feet height to roof level. According to Delhi High Court 

on account of the raising of the height of the parapet wall in the year 1973, the 

noxious fumes/smoke from the burning of the transformer oil, diesel and the 

fuel in the tanks of the cars and the burning of cars themselves could not escape 

into open atmosphere, and as a consequence, the noxious fumes and smoke 

funneled into the stairwell to reach the air-conditioning ducts providing air-

conditioning to the balcony and the landing near the balcony exit, resulting in 

asphyxiation of 57 patrons. It is submitted that except the reference to the 

parapet wall there is absolutely no reference to the role of the MCD. It is 

contended that in 1973 it had no role to play to check the construction as at that 

time, it was the responsibility of the Executive Engineer, PWD. And by the 

time it came into the picture in 1994 replacing the Executive Engineer, PWD, 

the structure was in existence for more than two decades and therefore there 

was no question of MCD objecting to the said wall.

23. MCD submitted that it could easily demonstrate from the relevant 

enactment and Rules that it had no role to play in regard to the raising the 

height of the parapet wall by the theatre owner, nor any liability for such action 

 30

by the theatre owner and as a consequence they should have been exonerated. It 

was pointed out that under the Cinematograph Act the Licensing Authority 

grants a cinematograph licence enabling a theatre owner to run cinema shows in 

the theatre. The Cinematographic Rules, 1953 contemplated the licensing 

authority obtaining clearances/consents from the Executive Engineer PWD and 

Electrical Inspector. Even the Delhi Cinematographic Rules of 1983 

contemplated certificates/consents being obtained by the Licensing Authority 

from the Public Works Department, Electrical Inspector and Chief Fire Officer 

every year before renewing the licence. Even in regard to the design and 

construction of the cinema theatre, the rules under the Cinematographic Act 

applied and prevailed and the municipal bye-laws did not contain any provision 

as to the construction of cinema theatre but on the other hand, clearly provided 

that the matter will be governed by the Cinematograph Rules. Thus, the MCD 

had no role to play either in construction of the cinema theatre or in the grant of 

licence or periodical renewal thereof. It was only on 3.5.1994 by virtue of 

amendment of the Delhi Cinematography Rules, 1981, substituted in place of 

the Executive Engineer of PWD, that MCD was required to give a report in 

regard to the structure/building which was one of the requirements for the 

licensing authority to grant or renew any cinema licence. From 1994, the 

limited role of MCD was to furnish a report regarding the structures and 

whether there were any deviations. But in fact its reports could not even be 

 31

acted upon by the licensing authority, in view of the order of stay obtained by 

the Licensee against the licensing authority on 28.6.1983, made absolute on 

25.3.1986. In view of such stay, the licensing authority was not issuing any 

licences but was only granting temporary bi-monthly permits for running of the 

theatre. Even the report given by the MCD pointing out the various 

defects/violations was not of any assistance to the Licensing Authority. This 

was because in the year 1993 itself, the licensing authority had made an 

application for vacating the interim stay but on account of the time taken by the 

Licensees for filing objections thereto and thereafter for hearing, the application 

was not heard even on the date of the incident and thereafter the entire matter 

became infructuous. In the circumstances it is submitted that the MCD had no 

role to play even in the matter of inspection and giving of reports regarding 

condition of the premises.

24. As far as the parapet wall is concerned it is contended that it had not 

sanctioned any plan for increasing the height of the parapet wall from 3 ft. to 

roof level. It was contended even if it granted any licence for construction or 

given any report or no objection certificate, in exercise of its statutory 

functions, it could not be made liable for any compensation on the ground of 

grant of such licence or NOC or report in regard to the parapet wall, as no 

 32

knowledge can be attributed to the Corporation about the possible consequences 

of raising the height of parapet wall. 

25. Lastly it was contended by MCD that when in exercise of its statutory 

powers of regulating the constructions of buildings within its jurisdictional area 

or in complying with the request of the Licensing Authority for any report as 

per Cinematograph Rules, it acts bona fide and in accordance with the relevant 

rules and bye-laws, in the absence of malafides, it can not be made liable even 

if there were any errors or irregularities or violations. It was submitted that it 

cannot also be made liable for any violation by the theatre owner in putting up 

the construction in accordance with the plan sanctioned by the MCD or any 

violation of the rules or licence terms or negligence in running the cinema 

theatre.

26. It was contended by the victims Association that the liability of the 

Municipal Corporation arises from the fact that it was one of the authorities 

which was required to give Reports/No Objection Certificates (NOCs) to the 

licensing authority every year, for construction and grant of renewal of licence. 

As admitted by the MCD itself the responsibility of granting a certificate in 

regard to the condition of the structure of the building and the violations in 

construction thereof was entrusted to the MCD on 3.5.1994. It was contended 

 33

that if the Municipal Corporation had discharged its functions as was expected 

of them by thorough inspection of the theatre building and pointed out to the 

licensing authority any violations or deviations or unauthorised constructions, 

the temporary permit for running the theatre which was being issued by the 

licensing authority, could have been stopped and the calamity could have been 

averted. It was pointed out that on the other hand, when the Licensing Authority 

sought its report/NOC, by its communication dated 11.3.1996, seeking 

inspection and report, MCD represented by its Administrative Officer sent a 

report dated 25.9.1996 to the Deputy Commissioner of Police, (Licensing 

Authority) stating that it had no objection for the renewal of annual 

Cinematograph licence of the Uphaar Theatre. It was submitted that the purpose 

of seeking a No Objection Certificate from the Municipal Corporation was not 

an empty formality; and that if statutory authorities like MCD, ignore the 

relevance and importance of such no objection certificate and routinely grant 

such certificates, as if it is a formality to be complied with mechanically, the 

licensing process would become a mockery. It was contended that statutory 

authorities like MCD should function diligently relating to public safety and if 

they fail to do so, they should be liable for the consequences. 

27. We agree with the MCD that it had no role to play in regard to 

increasing the height of the parapet wall. The sanction for licence to 

 34

construction granted in 1972 was in regard to a three feet high parapet wall. 

The height of the said wall was increased by the Theatre owners in or about 

1973. The MCD was not the inspecting authority till 1994. There was no 

structural change, modification or deviation after 1994. When MCD 

inspected the theatre, it would have seen a theatre which was running for 

more than 20 years and that there was no recent change. In the 

circumstances, MCD cannot be found fault with for not complaining about 

the wall. 

28. The Delhi Cinematographic Rules, 1981 as originally framed had no 

role for MCD in the grant of licences by the licensing authority. Rule 14 

provided that before granting or renewing an annual licence the Licensing 

Authority shall call upon: (i) the Executive Engineer, PWD, to examine the 

structural features of the building and report whether the rules thereto had 

duly been complied with; (ii) the Electrical Inspector to examine the 

electrical equipments used in the building and report whether they complied 

with the requirements of the Electricity Act and the Rules thereunder and 

whether all precautions had been taken to protect the spectators and 

employees from electric shock and to prevent the introduction of fire in the 

building through the use of electrical equipments; and (iii) the Chief Fire 

Officer to ensure that proper means of escape and safety against fire and to 

 35

report whether proper fire extinguishers appliances have been provided. All 

defects revealed by such inspections were required to be brought to the 

notice of the licensee and the licensing authority who may refuse to grant or 

renew the licences unless and until they are remedied to its satisfaction. In 

fact even for granting a temporary licence, Rule 15 required the licensing 

authority to call upon the Executive Engineer, PWD, to inspect the building 

and report whether it is structurally safe for cinematographic exhibition. The 

said rules were amended by Cinematograph Amendment Rules, 1994 by 

notification dated 3.5.1994. By virtue of the said amendment wherever the 

term `Executive Engineer' appeared it was to be substituted by the words 

`concerned local body'. The term concerned local body was also defined as 

referring to MCD, DDA, NDMC, Cantonment Board, as the case may be in 

whose jurisdiction the place of cinematographic exhibition was situated. 

Therefore on and after 3.5.1994, the report/certificate of the MCD about the 

structural features of the building and whether the Rules in that behalf had 

been duly complied with, was a condition precedent for renewing the annual 

license or even granting a temporary lease by the licensing authority. This 

showed that as far as the structural features and deviations and defects, the 

Licensing Authority relied upon the MCD, for expert opinion after 3.5.1994. 

The question is whether MCD can be made liable to compensate the victims 

of the fire tragedy, on the ground that it was required to give an inspection 

 36

report or on the ground that it gave a no objection certificate on 25.9.1996 

for renewal of licence for 1996-97. 

Contentions of the Licensing Authority 

29. The Licensing Authority contended that the High Court committed an 

error in holding it responsible for having contributed to the spreading of fire and 

smoke by its acts of omission and commission and consequently making it 

liable to pay compensation. The licence was granted initially in the year 1973. 

At that time the District Magistrate was the licensing authority. The power to 

grant licence and renew it yearly was transferred from the District Magistrate to 

the Deputy Commissioner of Police (Licensing) on 25.3.1986. The licensing 

authority was not an expert on Cinema Theatres nor technically qualified to 

assess whether a licence of a cinema theatre should be renewed or not. He was 

required to obtain the reports/NOCs from the PWD (from MCD from the year 

1994), Fire Force and Electrical Inspector. On the basis of such reports and on 

personal inspections, the licensing authority was required to consider and 

decide whether a theatre owner was entitled to a licence or renewal of licence to 

exhibit cinematograph films in the theatre. The Licensing Authority was 

empowered to cancel the licence or refuse to renew it (if he was considering an 

application for renewal) if the applicant for licence did not fulfill the 

 37

requirements. The theatre owners had filed a writ petition and obtained an 

interim order of stay in the year 1983 against the cancellation/suspension of 

their cinematographic licence. While making the interim order absolute on 

25.3.1986, the High Court had made it clear that if there were any violations by 

the theatre owner, the licensing authority was at liberty to take such steps as 

were necessary to ensure that the violations or deviations were set right. The 

said interim order made it clear that if there were any violations, he can also 

move the High Court for vacating the interim order. The Licensing Authority 

moved an application on 19.4.1993 citing several serious violations committed 

by the licensee. But the High Court did not vacate the stay. Therefore the 

Licensing Authority had to issue temporary licences inspite of any 

irregularities. Therefore the Licensing Authority could not be held responsible. 

30. While sparking in the Delhi Vidyut Board transformer due to negligence 

in maintenance, started the fire, the impact of this fire would not have been so 

tragic, (i) if the cars not been parked in front of and very close to the 

transformer in a haphazard manner; (ii) if adequate exits had been provided on 

both sides of the balcony; (iii) if the owners of the theatre had not closed top 

right exit of the balcony to provide a private box for the owners resulting in an 

exit only on one side of the balcony; (iv) if the owners had not constructed an 

illegal wall the poisonous fumes would not have been funneled towards the 

 38

balcony; and as every second's delay in exiting to safer environment was vital, 

if the exits been located on both sides of the balcony, precious minutes would 

have been saved in getting out and loss of several innocent lives avoided. It 

should be remembered that none of the patrons from the main hall (ground 

floor) of the cinema died or were injured. Even those who were on the second 

floor escaped. It was only the occupants of the balcony who were affected and 

the deaths were due to asphyxiation on account of the noxious fumes/smoke. 

The theatre owner and DVB have been held liable. The question is whether the 

Licensing Authority and MCD can be held liable for improper discharge of 

statutory functions. 

The Legal position : 

31. In Rabindra Nath Ghosal Vs. University of Calcutta and Ors. - (2002) 7 

SCC 478 this Court held: 

 "The Courts having the obligation to satisfy the social aspiration of the 

 citizens have to apply the tool and grant compensation as damages in a 

 public law proceedings. Consequently when the Court moulds the relief in 

 proceedings under Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution seeking 

 enforcement or protection of fundamental rights and grants compensation, 

 it does so under the public law by way of penalising the wrongdoer and 

 fixing the liability for the public wrong on the State which has failed in its 

 public duty to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens. But it would 

 not be correct to assume that every minor infraction of public duty by 

 every public officer would commend the Court to grant compensation in 

 a petition under Articles 226 and 32 by applying the principle of public 

 law proceeding. The Court in exercise of extraordinary power under 

 Articles 226 and 32 of the Constitution, therefore, would not award 

 damages against public authorities merely because they have made 

 39

 some order which turns out to be ultra vires, or there has been some 

 inaction in the performance of the duties unless there is malice or 

 conscious abuse. Before exemplary damages can be awarded it must be 

 shown that some fundamental right under Article 21 has been infringed by 

 arbitrary or capricious action on the part of the public functionaries and 

 that the sufferer was a helpless victim of that act."

 (emphasis supplied)

This Court in Rajkot Municipal Corporation v. M.J. Nakum (1997) 9 SCC 

552 dealing with a case seeking damages under law of torts for negligence 

by municipality, held as follows: 

 "The conditions in India have not developed to such an extent that a 

 Corporation can keep constant vigil by testing the healthy condition of the 

 trees in the public places, road-side, highway frequented by passers-by. 

 There is no duty to maintain regular supervision thereof, though the local 

 authority/other authority/owner of a property is under a duty to plant and 

 maintain the- tree. The causation for accident is too remote. Consequently, 

 there would be no Common Law right to file suit for tort of negligence. It 

 would not be just and proper to fasten duty of care and liability for 

 omission thereof. It would be difficult for the local authority etc. to foresee 

 such an occurrence. Under these circumstances, it would be difficult to 

 conclude that the appellant has been negligent in the maintenance of the 

 trees planted by it on the road-sides."

In Geddis v. Proprietors of Bonn Reservoir (1878) 3 Appeal Cases 430, the 

House of Lords held: 

 "For I take it, without citing cases, that is now thoroughly well established 

 that no action will lie for doing that which the legislature has 

 authorized, if it be done without negligence, although it does occasion 

 damage to anyone; but an action does lie for doing that which the 

 legislature has authorized, if it be done `negligently."

In X (Minors) v. Bedfordshire County Council [(1995) 3 All ER 353] the 

House of Lords held that in cases involving enactments providing a 

 40

framework for promotion of social welfare of the community, it would 

require exceptionally clear language to show a parliamentary intention that 

those responsible for carrying out the duties under such enactment should be 

liable in damages if they fail to discharge their statutory obligations. It was 

held: 

 "....a common law duty of care cannot be imposed on a statutory duty if 

 the observance of such a common law duty of care would be inconsistent 

 with or have a tendency to discourage the due performance of the statutory 

 duties by the local authority."

In R v. Dy Governor of Parkhurst Prison (Ex.P.Hague) - [(1991) 3 All ER 

733], the House of Lords held that the legislature had intended that the 

Prisons Act, 1952 should deal with the administration and management of 

prisons, but had not intended to confer on prisoners a cause of action in 

damages. The Prison Rules 1964 were regulatory in nature to govern prison 

regime, but not to protect prisoners against loss, injury, or damage nor to 

give them any right of action.

In John Just v. Her Majesty The Queen -- (1989) 2 SCR 1228, the Canadian 

Supreme Court considered the question whether the department of Highways 

is liable for payment of damages to a person who was hit by a boulder on a 

highway on the ground it was duty of the department to maintain the 

highway in a safe and secure manner. The Canadian Supreme Court held: 

 41

 "Prior to the accident the practice had been for the Department of 

 Highways to make visual inspections of the rock cuts on Highway. These 

 were carried out from the highway unless here was evidence or history of 

 instability in an area in which case the rock engineer would climb the 

 slope. In addition there were numerous informal inspections carried out by 

 highway personnel as they drove along the road when they would look for 

 signs of change in the rock cut and for rocks in the ditch.......In order for a 

 private duty to arise in this case, the plaintiff would have to establish 

 that the Rockwork Section, having exercised its discretion as to the 

 manner or frequency of inspection, carried out the inspection without 

 reasonable care or at all. There is no evidence or indeed allegation in 

 this regard......I would therefore dismiss the appeal."

 (emphasis supplied)

In Roger Holland v. Government of Saskatchewan & Ors. (2008) 2 SCR 551 

the Canadian Supreme Court held: 

 "The law to date has not recognized an action for negligent breach of 

 statutory duty. It is well established that mere breach of a statutory duty 

 does not constitute negligence: The Queen in right of Canada v. 

 Saskatchewan Wheat Pool (1983) 1 SCR 205. The proper remedy for 

 breach of statutory duty by a public authority, traditionally viewed, is 

 judicial review for invalidity."

In Union of India v. United India Insurance Co.Ltd. - (1997) 8 SCC 683 this 

Court held: 

 ".......But in East Suffolk Rivers Catchment Board v. Kent 1941 AC 74, 

 Lord Romer had stated:

 Where a statutory authority is entrusted with a mere power it cannot be 

 made liable for any damage sustained by a member of the public by 

 reason of its failure to exercise that power.

 In Anns v.Merton London Borough [1977 (2) All ER 492] this principle 

 was somewhat deviated from. As stated earlier the plaintiff in Anns had 

 sued for losses to flats in a new block which had been damaged by 

 subsidence caused by inadequate foundations. The contention that the 

 Council was negligent in the exercise of statutory powers to inspect 

 foundations of new buildings giving rise to a claim for economic damage 

 suffered was upheld. This principle was however not accepted in Murphy 

 42

 to the extent economic looses were concerned. According to Lord 

 Hoffman, Anns was not overruled in Murphy Brentwood District Council 

 [1990 (2) All ER 908] so far as physical injury resulting from omission to 

 exercise statutory powers was concerned (p. 410). A duty of care at 

 common law can be derived from the authority's duty in public law to give 

 proper consideration to the question" whether to exercise power or not 

 (p.411). This public law duty cannot by itself give rise to a duty of care. 

 A public body almost always has a duty in public law to consider 

 whether it should exercise its powers but that did not mean that it 

 necessarily owed a duty of care which might require that the power 

 should be actually exercised. A mandamus could require future 

 consideration of the exercise of a power. But an action for negligence 

 looked back at what the authority ought to have done. Question is as to 

 when a public law duty to consider exercise of power vested by statute 

 would create a private law duty to act, giving rise to a claim for 

 compensation against public funds '(p. 412). One simply cannot derive a 

 common law "ought" from a statutory "may". The distinction made by 

 Lord Wilberforce in Anns between 'policy' and 'operations' is an 

 inadequate tool with which to discover whether it was appropriate to 

 impose a duty of care or not. But leaving that distinction, it does not 

 always follow that the law should superimpose a common law duty of care 

 upon a discretionary statutory power (p.413). Apart from exceptions 

 relating to individual or societal reliance on exercise of statutory power, - 

 it is not reasonable to expect a service to be provided at public expense 

 and also a duty to pay compensation for loss occasion by failure to 

 provide the service. An absolute rule to provide compensation would 

 increase the burden on public funds.

 (emphasis supplied)

32. It is evident from the decision of this Court as also the decisions of the 

English and Canadian Courts that it is not proper to award damages against 

public authorities merely because there has been some inaction in the 

performance of their statutory duties or because the action taken by them is 

ultimately found to be without authority of law. In regard to performance of 

statutory functions and duties, the courts will not award damages unless 

there is malice or conscious abuse. The cases where damages have been 

 43

awarded for direct negligence on the part of the statutory authority or cases 

involving doctrine of strict liability cannot be relied upon in this case to 

fasten liability against MCD or the Licensing Authority. The position of 

DVB is different, as direct negligence on its part was established and it was 

a proximate cause for the injuries to and death of victims. It can be said that 

in so far as the licensee and DVB are concerned, there was contributory 

negligence. The position of licensing authority and MCD is different. They 

were not the owners of the cinema theatre. The cause of the fire was not 

attributable to them or anything done by them. Their actions/omissions were 

not the proximate cause for the deaths and injuries. The Licensing Authority 

and MCD were merely discharging their statutory functions (that is granting 

licence in the case of licensing authority and submitting an inspection report 

or issuing a NOC by the MCD). In such circumstances, merely on the 

ground that the Licensing Authority and MCD could have performed their 

duties better or more efficiently, they cannot be made liable to pay 

compensation to the victims of the tragedy. There is no close or direct 

proximity to the acts of the Licensing Authority and MCD on the one hand 

and the fire accident and the death/injuries of the victims. But there was 

close and direct proximity between the acts of the Licensee and DVB on the 

one hand and the fire accident resultant deaths/injuries of victims. In view of 

the well settled principles in regard to public law liability, in regard to 

 44

discharge of statutory duties by public authorities, which do not involve 

malafides or abuse, the High Court committed a serious error in making the 

licensing authority and the MCD liable to pay compensation to the victims 

jointly and severally with the Licensee and DVB. 

33. We make it clear that the exoneration is only in regard to monetary 

liability to the victims. We do not disagree with the observations of the High 

Court that the performance of duties by the licensing authority and by MCD 

(in its limited sphere) was mechanical, casual and lackadaisical. There is a 

tendency on the part of these authorities to deal with the files coming before 

them as requiring mere paper work to dispose it. They fail to recognize the 

object of the law or rules, the reason why they are required to do certain acts 

and the consequences of non-application of mind or mechanical disposal of 

the application/requests which come to them. As rightly observed by Naresh 

Kumar's report, there is a lack of safety culture and lack of the will to 

improve performance. The compliance with the procedure and rules is 

mechanical. We affirm the observations of the High Court in regard to the 

shortcoming in the performance of their functions and duties by the licensing 

authority and to a limited extent by MCD. But that does not lead to 

monetary liability. 

 45

Re: Questions (iii) and (iv)

34. The licensee argued that the entire liability should be placed upon the 

DVB. It was contended that DVB have installed a transformer of a capacity 

of 1000 KV without obtaining the statutory sanction/approval and without 

providing all the safety measures which it was duty bound to provide under 

the relevant Electricity Rules, and therefore, DVB alone should be 

responsible for the tragedy. This contention has no merit. In fact none in the 

main hall (ground floor of the theatre) died. Those on the second floor also 

escaped. It is only those in the balcony caught in noxious fumes, who died of 

asphyxiation. The deaths were on account of the negligence and greed on the 

part of the licensee in regard to installation of additional seats, in regard to 

closing of an exit door, parking of cars in front of transformer room by 

increasing parking from 15 to 35 and other acts. We therefore reject the 

contention that DVB should be made exclusively liable to pay the 

compensation. We have already held that the Licensing Authority and MCD 

are not liable. Therefore, the liability will be 85% (Licensee) and 15% 

(DVB). 

35. We may next consider whether the compensation awarded in this case 

is proper and in accordance with the principles of public law remedy. As 

 46

noticed above, the High Court has awarded compensation to the legal heirs 

of 57 deceased victims at the rate of Rs.18 lakhs where the deceased was 

aged more than 20 years and Rs.15 lakhs where the deceased was aged 20 

years or less. It awarded Rs.1 lakh for each of the 103 injured. In regard to 

the death cases, the High Court adopted the following rationale : Each 

person who was sitting in the balcony class where the rate of admission was 

Rs.50 per ticket, can be assumed to belong to a strata of society where the 

monthly income could not be less than Rs.15,000. Deducting one-third for 

personal expenses, the loss of dependency to the family would be Rs.10,000 

p.m. or Rs.120,000/- per annum. Applying a common multiplier of 15 in all 

cases where the deceased was more than 20 years, the compensation payable 

would be Rs.18 lakhs. The High Court deducted Rs.3 lakhs and awarded 

compensation at a flat rate of Rs.15,00,000/- where the deceased was 20 

years or less. The High Court also awarded interest at 9% per annum on the 

compensation amount from the date of filing of the writ petition (14.7.1997) 

to the date of payment.

36. Having awarded the said amounts the High Court proceeded to hold 

as follows :

 "97. We have arrived at the compensation on the basis of our estimation of 

 the income of the victims of the unfortunate incident as we had no means 

 to know their exact income. We, therefore, leave it open to the injured as 

 47

 well as relatives of the deceased to claim compensation based on the exact 

 income of the victims by filing a suit or any other proceeding as may be 

 permissible in law and if a suit or any other proceedings claiming such 

 compensation are initiated within one year of this judgment, the same shall 

 not be dismissed only on the ground of limitation. The amount directed by 

 us to be payable under this judgment shall be adjusted against the amount 

 which may ultimately be granted in favor of such persons in the 

 proceedings mentioned above."

37. The contention of the Licensee is what could be awarded as a public 

law remedy is only a nominal interim or palliative compensation and if any 

claimants (legal heirs of the deceased or any injured) wanted a higher 

compensation, they should file a suit for recovery thereof. It was contended 

that as what was awarded was an interim or palliative compensation, the 

High Court could not have assumed the monthly income of each adult who 

died as being not less than Rs.15,000 and then determining the 

compensation by applying the multiplier of 15 was improper. This gives rise 

to the following question : Whether the income and multiplier method 

adopted to finally determine compensation can be arrived while awarding 

tentative or palliative compensation by way of a public law remedy under 

Article 226 or 32 of the Constitution?

37.1) Rudul Sah vs. State of Bihar [1983 (4) SCC 141] was one of the 

earliest decisions where interim compensation was awarded by way of 

 48

public law remedy in the case of an illegal detention. This Court explained 

the rationale for awarding such interim compensation thus: 

 "This order will not preclude the petitioner from bringing a suit to recover 

 appropriate damages from the state and its erring officials. The order of 

 compensation passed by us is, as we said above, in the nature of a 

 palliative. We cannot leave the petitioner penniless until the end of his 

 suit, the many appeals and the execution proceedings. A full-dressed 

 debate on the nice points of fact and law which takes place leisurely in 

 compensation suits will have to await the filing of such a suit by the poor 

 Rudul Sah."

37.2) In Nilabati Behera alias Lalita Behera vs. State of Orissa [1993 (2) 

SCC 746] this court observed :

 "Therefore, when the court moulds the relief by granting "compensation" 

 in proceedings under Article 32 or 226 of the Constitution seeking 

 enforcement or protection of fundamental rights, it does so under the 

 public law by way of penalising the wrongdoer and fixing the liability for 

 the public wrong on the State which has failed in its public duty to protect 

 the fundamental rights of the citizen. The payment of compensation in 

 such cases is not to be understood, as it is generally understood in a civil 

 action for damages under the private law but in the broader sense of 

 providing relief by an order of making 'monetary amends' under the public 

 law for the wrong done due to breach of public duty, of not protecting the 

 fundamental rights of the citizen. The compensation is in the nature of 

 'exemplary damages' awarded against the wrong doer for the breach of its 

 public law duty and is independent of the rights available to the aggrieved 

 party to claim compensation under the private law in an action based on 

 tort, through a suit instituted in a court of competent jurisdiction or/and 

 prosecute the offender under the penal law."

37.3) In Sube Singh vs. State of Haryana [2006 (3) SCC 178] this court 

held:

 "It is now well-settled that award of compensation against the State is an 

 appropriate and effective remedy for redressal of an established 

 49

 infringement of a fundamental right under Article 21, by a public servant. 

 The quantum of compensation will, however, depend upon the facts and 

 circumstances of each case. Award of such compensation (by way of 

 public law remedy) will not come in the way of the aggrieved person 

 claiming additional compensation in a civil court, in the enforcement of 

 the private law remedy in tort, nor come in the way of the criminal court 

 ordering compensation under Section 357 of Cr. PC. Award of 

 compensation as a public law remedy for violation of the fundamental 

 rights enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution, in addition to the private 

 law remedy under the law of torts, was evolved in the last two-and-a-half 

 decades."

38. Therefore what can be awarded as compensation by way of public law 

remedy need not only be a nominal palliative amount, but something more. 

It can be by way of making monetary amounts for the wrong done or by way 

of exemplary damages, exclusive of any amount recoverable in a civil action 

based on tortuous liability. But in such a case it is improper to assume 

admittedly without any basis, that every person who visits a cinema theatre 

and purchases a balcony ticket should be of a high income group person. In 

the year 1997, Rs.15,000 per month was rather a high income. The movie 

was a new movie with patriotic undertones. It is known that zealous movie 

goers, even from low income groups, would not mind purchasing a balcony 

ticket to enjoy the film on the first day itself. To make a sweeping 

assumption that every person who purchased a balcony class ticket in 1997 

should have had a monthly income of Rs.15,000 and on that basis apply high 

multiplier of 15 to determine the compensation at a uniform rate of Rs.18 

lakhs in the case of persons above the age of 20 years and Rs.15 lakhs for 

 50

persons below that age, as a public law remedy, may not be proper. While 

awarding compensation to a large group of persons, by way of public law 

remedy, it will be unsafe to use a high income as the determinative factor. 

The reliance upon Neelabati Behera in this behalf is of no assistance as that 

case related to a single individual and there was specific evidence available 

in regard to the income. Therefore the proper course would be to award a 

uniform amount keeping in view the principles relating to award of 

compensation in public law remedy cases reserving liberty to the legal heirs 

of deceased victims to claim additional amount wherever they were not 

satisfied with the amount awarded. Taking note of the facts and 

circumstances, the amount of compensation awarded in public law remedy 

cases, and the need to provide a deterrent, we are of the view that award of 

Rs.10 lakhs in the case of persons aged above 20 years and Rs.7.5 lakhs in 

regard to those who were 20 years or below as on the date of the incident, 

would be appropriate. We do not propose to disturb the award of Rs.1 lakh 

each in the case of injured. The amount awarded as compensation will carry 

interest at the rate of 9% per annum from the date of writ petition as ordered 

by the High Court, reserve liberty to the victims or the LRs. of the victims as 

the case may be to seek higher remedy wherever they are not satisfied with 

the compensation. Any increase shall be borne by the Licensee (theatre 

owner) exclusively.

 51

39. Normally we would have let the matter rest there. But having regard 

to the special facts and circumstances of the case we propose to proceed a 

step further to do complete justice. The calamity resulted in the death of 59 

persons and injury to 103 persons. The matter related to a ghastly fire 

incident of 1997. The victims association has been fighting the cause of 

victims for more than 14 years. If at this stage, we require the victims to 

individually approach the civil court and claim compensation, it will cause 

hardship, apart from involving huge delay, as the matter will be fought in a 

hierarchy of courts. The incident is not disputed. The names and identity of 

the 59 persons who died and 103 persons who were injured are available and 

is not disputed. Insofar as death cases are concerned the principle of 

determining compensation is streamlined by several decisions of this court. 

(See for example Sarla Verma v. Delhi Transport Corporation (2009) 6 

SCC 121. If three factors are available the compensation can be determined. 

The first is the age of the deceased, the second is the income of the deceased 

and the third is number of dependants (to determine the percentage of 

deduction for personal expenses). For convenience the third factor can also 

be excluded by adopting a standard deduction of one third towards personal 

expenses. Therefore just two factors are required to be ascertained to 

determine the compensation in 59 individual cases. First is the annual 

income of the deceased, two third of which becomes the annual loss of 

 52

dependency the age of the deceased which will furnish the multiplier in 

terms of Sarla Verma. The annual loss of dependency multiplied by the 

multiplier will give the compensation.

40. As this is a comparatively simple exercise, we direct the Registrar 

General of Delhi High Court to receive applications in regard to death cases, 

from the claimants (legal heirs of the deceased) who want a compensation in 

excess of what has been awarded that is Rs.10 lakhs/Rs.7.5 lakhs. Such 

applications should be filed within three months from today. He shall hold a 

summary inquiry and determine the compensation. Any amount awarded in 

excess of what is hereby awarded as compensation shall be borne 

exclusively by the theatre owner. To expedite the process the concerned 

claimants and the Licensee with their respective counsel shall appear before 

the Registrar without further notice. For this purpose the claimants and the 

theatre owner may appear before the Registrar on 10.1.2012 and take further 

orders in the matter. The hearing and determination of compensation may be 

assigned to any Registrar or other Senior Judge nominated by the Learned 

Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court. As far as the 

injured are concerned if they are not satisfied with the sum of Rs.1 lakh 

which has been awarded it is open to them to approach the civil court for 

claiming higher compensation and if they do so within 3 months from today, 

 53

the same shall be entertained and disposed of in accordance with law. It is 

not possible to refer the injury cases for summary determination like death 

cases, as the principles are different and determination may require a more 

detailed enquiry. 

Re: Punitive damages

41. We may next deal with the question of award of punitive damages of 

Rs.2,50,00,000/- against the licensee. Before examining whether such 

punitive damages could be awarded at all, we have to notice the apparent 

mistake in arriving at the sum of Rs.2.5 crores. The High Court has stated 

that the licensee should be made liable to pay punitive damages to the extent 

of profit which it would have earned by selling tickets in regard to extra 

seats unauthorisedly and illegally sanctioned by the authorities and installed 

by the Licensee. The High Court has not stated the arithmetical calculation 

of arriving at Rs.2,50,00,000/- but it has indicated that the said sum has been 

assessed as the income earned by them by selling tickets for additional 250 

seats between 1979 and 1996. The High Court has apparently calculated the 

ticket revenue at the rate of Rs.50/- per ticket for 52 additional seats for three 

shows a day to arrive at a sum of Rs.7,800/- per day. For 17 years, this 

works out to Rs. Rs.4,83,99,000/-. Presumably, the High Court deducted Rs. 

Rs.2,33,99,000/- towards entertainment tax etc., to arrive at Rs.2.5 crores as 

 54

profit from these additional seats. Initially the seats were 250. Forty three 

additional seats were sanctioned on 30.9.1976. Subsequently, the additional 

seats were cancelled. However, the Delhi High Court permitted the 

continuance of such number of seats which were permissible as per Rules. 

Therefore, all the 52 seats cannot be held to be illegal. What were illegal 

seats were the 15 seats that were added by securing an order dated 

4.10.1980. The remaining 37 seats were found to be valid by the authorities. 

Therefore, if at all the licensee is to be made liable to reimburse the profits 

earned from illegal seats, it should be only in regard to these 15 seats and the 

eight seats in the Box which was the cause for closing one of the exits. In so 

far as the eight seats in the owner's box, though it is alleged that they were 

intended to be used only as complimentary seats, for the purpose of award of 

punitive damages, they are treated at par with other balcony seats. The High 

Court also wrongly assumed that the ticket value to be Rs.50/- from 1979 to 

1996, because it was Rs.50/- in the year 1997 for a balcony seat. Another 

erroneous assumption made is that for all shows on all the days, all these 

additional seats would be fully occupied. On a realistic assessment, (at a net 

average income of Rs.12/- per seat with average 50% occupancy for 23 

seats) the profits earned from these seats for 17 years would at best 

Rs.25,00,000/-. Be that as it may. 

 55

42. We may next consider the appropriateness and legality of award of 

punitive damages. In this context, we may refer to the decision in M C 

Mehta vs. Union of India - 1987 (1) SCC 395 wherein this Court considered 

the question as to what should be the measure of liability of an enterprise 

which is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous industry, if by 

reason of an accident occurring in such industry, persons die or are injured. 

This Court held: 

 "...In a modem industrial society with highly developed scientific 

 knowledge and technology where hazardous or inherently dangerous 

 industries are necessary to carry out part of the developmental programme. 

 This rule evolved in the 19th Century at a time when all these 

 developments of science and technology had not taken place cannot afford 

 any guidance in evolving any standard of liability consistent with the 

 constitutional norms and the needs of the present day economy and social 

 structure. We need not feel inhibited by this rule which was evolved in this 

 context of a totally different kind of economy. Law has to grow in order to 

 satisfy the needs of the fast changing society and keep abreast with the 

 economic developments taking place in the country. As new situations 

 arise the law has to be evolved in order to meet the challenge of such new 

 situations. Law cannot afford to remain static. We have to evolve new 

 principles and lay down new norms which would adequately deal with the 

 new problems which arise in a highly industrialized economy. We cannot 

 allow our judicial thinking to be constricted by reference to the law as it 

 prevails in England or for the matter of that in any other foreign country. 

 We no longer need the crutches of a foreign legal order. We are certainly 

 prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes but we have to 

 build up our own jurisprudence and we cannot countenance an argument 

 that merely because the new law does not recognise the rule of strict and 

 absolute liability in cases of hazardous or dangerous liability or the rule as 

 laid down in Rylands v. Fletcher as is developed in England recognises 

 certain limitations and responsibilities. We in India cannot hold our hands 

 back and I venture to evolve a new principle of liability which English 

 courts have not done. We have to develop our own law and if we find that 

 it is necessary to construct a new principle of liability to deal with an 

 unusual situation which has arisen and which is likely to arise in future on 

 account of hazardous or inherently dangerous industries which are 

 concomitant to an industrial economy, there is no reason why we should 

 hesitate to evolve such principle of liability merely because it has not been 

 56

 so done in England. We are of the view that an enterprise which is 

 engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous industry which poses a 

 potential threat to the health and safety of the persons working in the 

 factory and residing in the surrounding areas owes an absolute and non-

 delegable duty to the community to ensure that no harm results to anyone 

 on account of hazardous or inherently dangerous nature of the activity 

 which it has undertaken. The enterprise must be held to be under an 

 obligation to provide that the hazardous or inherently dangerous activity in 

 which it is engaged must be conducted with the highest standards of safety 

 and if any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be 

 absolutely liable to compensate for such harm and it should be no answer 

 to the enterprise to say that it had taken all reasonable care and that the 

 harm occurred without any negligence on its part......

 ....Such hazardous or inherently dangerous activity for private profit can 

 be tolerated only on condition that the enterprise engaged in such 

 hazardous or inherently dangerous activity indemnifies all those who 

 suffer on account of the carrying on of such hazardous or inherently 

 dangerous activity regardless of whether it is carried on carefully or not. 

 This principle is also sustainable on the ground that the enterprise alone 

 has the resource to discover and guard against hazards or dangers and to 

 provide warning against potential hazards. We would therefore hold that 

 where an enterprise is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous 

 activity and harm results to anyone on account of an accident in the 

 operation of such hazardous or inherently dangerous activity resulting, for 

 example, in escape of toxic gas the enterprise is strictly and absolutely 

 liable to compensate all those who are affected by the accident and such 

 liability is not subject to any of the exceptions which operate vis-a-vis the 

 tortious principle of strict liability under the rule in Rylands v. Fletcher 

 (supra).

 We would also like to point out that the measure of compensation in the 

 kind of cases referred to in the preceding paragraph must be correlated to 

 the magnitude and capacity of the enterprise because such compensation 

 must have deterrent effect. The larger and more prosperous the enterprise 

 the greater must be the amount of compensation payable by it, for the 

 harm caused on account of an accident in carrying on all the hazardous or 

 inherently activity by the enterprise." 

43. What has been awarded is not exactly punitive damages with 

reference to the magnitude or capacity of the enterprise. All that the High 

Court pointed out was that the Licensee has installed additional seats 

 57

illegally. That illegality contributed to the cause for the death and injuries, as 

they slowed down the exiting of the occupant's balcony. If people could 

have got out faster (which they could have if the gangway was wider as 

before, and if there had been two exits as before, instead of only one) many 

would not have died of asphyxiation. Therefore the Licensee is not only 

liable to pay compensation for the death and injuries, but should, in the least 

be denied the profits/benefits out of their illegal acts. In that sense it is not 

really punitive, but a kind of negative restitution. We therefore uphold in 

principle the liability of the Licensee to return and reimburse the profits 

from the illegally installed seats, but reduce it from Rs.2.5 crores to Rs.25 

lakhs for the reasons stated in the earlier para. The award of the said sum, as 

additional punitive damages, covers two aspects. The first is because the 

wrongdoing is outrageous in utter disregard of the safety of the patrons of 

the theatre. The second is the gravity of the breach requiring a deterrent to 

prevent similar further breaches. 

General observations and suggestions 

44. The Parliament has enacted the Disaster Management Act, 2005. 

Section 1(3) thereof provides that it shall come into force on such dates as 

the Central Government may by notification in the Official Gazette appoint; 

and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of the Act for 

 58

different States, and any reference to commencement in any provisions of 

the Act in relation to any State shall be construed as a reference to the 

commencement of that provision in that State. All the provisions of the Act 

have not been brought into effect in all the States. Having regard to the 

object of the Act, bringing the Act into force promptly would be in public 

interest. In so far as Delhi is concerned, by notification dated 19.3.2008, the 

Government of NCT of Delhi has established the Delhi Disaster 

Management Authority for the national capital territory of Delhi. A disaster 

management helpline number has been made operational. Emergency 

operating centre and relief centres have been established, A State Disaster 

Response Force has been established. Several volunteers have been given 

training in disaster management. Attempts are being made to hold regular 

mockdrills in regard to various types of disasters (like earthquakes, flood, 

fire, road accidents, industrial and chemical disasters, terrorists attacks, gas 

leaks etc.). Steps are taken to contact the public in regard to several natural 

and man-made disasters. The key to successfully meeting the consequences 

of disasters is preparedness. There can be no complacency. Human tendency 

is to be awake and aware in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. But as the 

days pass, slowly the disaster management equipment and disaster 

management personnel allowed to slip away from their readiness. Only 

when the next disaster takes place, there is sudden awakening. In regard to 

 59

preparedness to meet disasters there could be no let up in the vigil. The 

expenditure required for maintaining a high state of alert and readiness to 

meet disasters may appear to be high and wasteful regarding `non-disaster 

periods' but the expenditure and readiness is absolutely must. Be that as it 

may.

45. While affirming the several suggestions by the High Court, we add the 

following suggestions to the government for consideration and 

implementation : 

 (i) Every licensee (cinema theatre) shall be required to draw up an 

 emergency evacuation plan and get it approved by the licensing 

 authority. 

 (ii) Every cinema theatre shall be required to screen a short 

 documentary during every show showing the exits, emergency 

 escape routes and instructions as to what to do and what not to do 

 in the case of fire or other hazards. 

 (iii) The staff/ushers in every cinema theatre should be trained in fire 

 drills and evacuation procedures to provide support to the patrons 

 in case of fire or other calamity. 

 (iv) While the theatres are entitled to regulate the exit through doors 

 other than the entry door, under no circumstances, the entry door 

 (which can act as an emergency exit) in the event of fire or other 

 emergency) should be bolted from outside. At the end of the show, 

 the ushers may request the patrons to use the exit doors by placing 

 60

 a temporary barrier across the entry gate which should be easily 

 movable.

(v) There should be mandatory half yearly inspections of cinema 

 theatres by a senior officer from the Delhi Fire Services, Electrical 

 Inspectorate and the Licensing Authority to verify whether the 

 electrical installations and safety measures are properly 

 functioning and take action wherever necessary. 

(vi) As the cinema theatres have undergone a change in the last decade 

 with more and more multiplexes coming up, separate rules should 

 be made for Multiplex Cinemas whose requirements and concerns 

 are different from stand-alone cinema theatres. 

(vii) An endeavour should be made to have a single point nodal 

 agency/licensing authority consisting of experts in structural 

 Engineering/building, fire prevention, electrical systems etc. The 

 existing system of police granting licences should be abolished. 

(viii) Each cinema theatre, whether it is a multiplex or stand-alone 

 theatre should be given a fire safety rating by the Fire Services 

 which can be in green (fully compliant), yellow (satisfactorily 

 compliant), red (poor compliance). The rating should be 

 prominently displayed in each theatre so that there is awareness 

 among the patrons and the building owners. 

(ix) The Delhi Disaster Management Authority, established by the 

 Government of NCT of Delhi may expeditiously evolve standards 

 to manage the disasters relating to cinema theatres and the 

 guidelines in regard to ex gratia assistance. It should be directed to 

 conduct mock drills in each cinema theatre at least once in a year. 

 61

Conclusions 

46. In view of the foregoing, we dispose of the appeals as follows: 

(i) CA Nos.7114-15 of 2003 filed by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi 

is allowed and that part of the order dated 24.4.2003 of the Delhi High Court 

holding MCD jointly and severally liable to pay compensation to the victims 

of the Uphaar Fire tragedy, is set aside.

(ii) CA No.7116 of 2003 filed by the Licensing Authority is allowed and 

that part of the order dated 24.4.2003 of the Delhi High Court holding the 

Licensing Authority jointly and severally liable to pay compensation to the 

victims of the Uphaar Fire tragedy, is set aside.

(iii) The writ petition filed by the Victims Association on behalf of the 

victims, to the extent it seeks compensation from MCD and Licensing 

Authority is rejected.

(iv) The licensee (appellant in CA No.6748 of 2004) and Delhi Vidyut 

Board are held jointly and severally liable to compensate the victims of the 

Uphaar fire tragedy. Though their liability is joint and several, as between 

them, the liability shall be 85% on the part the licensee and 15% on the part 

of DVB.

(v) CA No.6748 of 2004 is allowed in part and the judgment of the High 

Court is modified as under : 

 62

(a) The compensation awarded by the High Court in the case of death 

 is reduced from Rs.18 lacs to Rs.10 lacs (in the case of those aged 

 more than 20 years) and Rs.15 lacs to Rs. 7.5 lacs (in the case of 

 those aged 20 years and less). The said sum is payable to legal 

 representatives of the deceased to be determined by a brief and 

 summary enquiry by the Registrar General (or nominee of learned 

 Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court). 

(b) The compensation of Rs.One lakh awarded by the High Court in 

 the case of each of the 103 injured persons is affirmed.

(c) The interest awarded from the date of the writ petition on the 

 aforesaid sums at the rate of 9% per annum is affirmed. 

(d) If the legal representatives of any deceased victim are not satisfied 

 with the compensation awarded, they are permitted to file an 

 application for compensation with supporting documentary proof 

 (to show the age and the income), before the Registrar General, 

 Delhi High Court. If such an application if filed within three 

 months, it shall not be rejected on the ground of delay. The 

 Registrar General or such other Member of Higher Judiciary 

 nominated by the learned Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the 

 High Court shall decide those applications in accordance with 

 paras above and place the matter before the Division Bench of the 

 63

 Delhi High Court for consequential formal orders determining the 

 final compensation payable to them. 

(e) The injured victims who are not satisfied with the award of Rs.One 

 lakh as compensation, may approach the civil court in three 

 months, in which event the claims shall not be dismissed on the 

 ground of delay.

(f) While disbursing the compensation amount, any ex gratia payment 

 by the Central Government/Delhi Government shall not be taken 

 into account. But other payments on account shall be taken note of.

(g) As a consequence, if DVB has deposited any amount in excess it 

 shall be entitled to receive back the same from any amount in 

 deposit or to be deposited. 

(h) The punitive damages ordered to be paid by the Licensee, to the 

 Union of India, (for being used for setting up a Central Accident 

 Trauma Centre) is reduced from Rs.2.5 crores to Rs.25 lakhs.

(i) The decisions of the High Court and this Court having been 

 rendered in a public law jurisdiction, they will not come in the way 

 of any pending criminal proceedings being decided with reference 

 to the evidence placed in such proceedings. 

 64

K. S. Radhakrishnan J. 

1. I fully endorse the reasoning as well as the conclusions reached by my 

esteemed brother. All the same, I would like to add a few thoughts which 

occurred to my mind on certain issues which arose for consideration in these 

matters.

2. Private law causes of action, generally enforced by the claimants 

against public bodies and individuals, are negligence, breach of statutory 

duty, misfeasance in public office etc. Negligence as a tort is a breach of 

legal duty to take care which results in damage or injury to another. Breach 

of statutory duty is conceptually separate and independent from other related 

torts such as negligence though an action for negligence can also arise as a 

result of cursory and malafide exercise of statutory powers. Right of an 

aggrieved person to sue in ordinary civil courts against the State and its 

officials and private persons through an action in tort and the principles to be 

followed in considering such claims are well settled and require no further 

elucidation. We are in these appeals concerned with the claims resulting in 

the death of 59 patrons and injury to 103 patrons in a fire erupted at Uphaar 

Cinema Theater, South Delhi on 13.6.1997. 

 65

3. We are primarily concerned with the powers of the Constitutional 

Courts in entertaining such monetary claims raised by the victims against the 

violation of statutory provisions by licensing authorities, licensees, and 

others affecting the fundamental rights guaranteed to them under the 

Constitution. Constitutional Courts in such situations are expected to 

vindicate the parties constitutionally, compensate them for the resulting 

harm and also to deter future misconduct. Constitutional Courts seldom 

exercise their constitutional powers to examine a claim for compensation, 

merely due to violation of some statutory provisions resulting in monetary 

loss to the claimants. Most of the cases in which Courts have exercised 

their constitutional powers are when there is intense serious violation of 

personal liberty, right to life or violation of human rights. But, even in 

private law remedy against the State and its instruments they claim 

immunity on the plea that they are discharging sovereign functions, even in 

cases where there is violation of personal liberty. 

4. This Court in State of Rajasthan v. Vidyawati AIR 1962 SC 933, 

rejected claim of the State sovereign immunity and upheld the award of 

compensation in tort for the death of a pedestrian due to the rash and 

negligent driving of a Government jeep. In Kasturi Lal v. State of U.P. 

AIR 1965 SC 1039, drawing distinction between sovereign and non-

 66

sovereign functions, the apex Court rejected the plea of arrest in violation of 

the U.P. Police Regulation on the ground that the arrest was made as a part 

of the sovereign powers of the State. Kasturi Lal was a Constitution Bench 

judgment. However, in N. Nagendra Rao v. State of A.P., AIR 1994 SC 

2663, a three Judge Bench of this Court drew a distinction between the 

sovereign and non sovereign functions of the State and held as follows:-

 "No legal or political system today can place the State above "Law" as it is 

 unjust and unfair for a citizen to be deprived of his property illegally when 

 negligent act by the officers of the State without any remedy. From sincerity, 

 efficiency and dignity of the State as a juristic person, propounded in the 

 nineteenth century as sound sociological basis for State immunity, the circle 

 has gone round and the emphasis is now more on liberty, equality and the rule 

 of law. The modern social thinking of progressive societies and the judicial 

 approach is to do away with archaic State protection and place the State or the 

 Government on a par with any other juristic legal entity. Any watertight 

 compartmentalization of the functions of the State as "sovereign and non-

 sovereign" or "governmental and non-governmental" is not sound. It is 

 contrary to modern jurisprudential thinking. The need of the State to have 

 extraordinary powers cannot be doubted. But with the conceptual change of 

 statutory power being statutory duty for the sake of the society and the people, 

 the claim of a common man or ordinary citizen cannot be thrown out, merely 

 because it was done by an Officer of the State even though it was against law 

 and negligent. Needs of the State; duty of its officials and right of the citizens 

 are required to be reconciled, so that the rule of law in a Welfare State is not 

 shaken". 

The Court further held:

 "The determination of vicarious liability of the State being linked with the 

 negligence of his officers, if they can be sued personally for which there is no 

 dearth of authority and law of misfeasance in discharge of public duty having 

 marched ahead, there is no rationale for the proposition that even if the officer 

 is liable, the State cannot be sued."

 67

5. The Court further opined that the ratio of Kasturi Lal is available to 

those rare and limited cases where the statutory authority acts as a delegate 

of such functions for which it cannot be sued in a court of law. The court 

opined that the same principle would not be available in large number of 

other activities carried on by the State by enacting a law in its legislative 

competence. 

6. The general principle of law enunciated in Rylands v. Fletcher, 

(1868) LR 3 HL 330, Donoghue v. Stevenson, [1932] AC 562, however, 

still guides us. In several situations, where officials are dealing with 

hazardous or explosive substance, the maxim re ipsa loquitor applies. 

Reference may be made to the decision in Lloyde v. Westminster, [1972] All 

E.R. 1240, Henderson v. eHenry Jenkins & Sons, [1969] 2 All E.R. 756. 

Principles laid down in Donoghue v. Stevenson, which highlighted the 

neighbour principle as a test to determine whether a potential duty of care 

exists, however is held to be not applicable to all fact situations. Lord 

Weilberfoce enunciated a dual test in Anns v. Merton London Borough 

Council [1978] AC 728, of existence of proximity and reasonable 

foreseeability and a failure to take care that causes harm to the claimant. 

The House of Lords, however, in Murphy v. Brentwood Dsitrict Council 

[1990] 3 WLR 414, however, overruled Anns on the ground that there was 

 68

no duty to take care on the legal authority to prevent power economic loss 

occurring. House of Lords, however, in Caparo Industries plc v. Dickman 

[1990] 2 AC 605 = 1990 All E.R. 568 laid down three tests i.e. the claimants 

must show that harm was reasonably foreseeable, the relationship between 

the parties was proximate and that the imposition of liability would be just, 

fair and reasonable. Later in X (Minors) v. Bedfordshire County Council, 

[1995] 2 A.C. 633, Lord Browne-Wilkinson stated that an administrative act 

carried out in the exercise of a statutory discretion can only be actionable in 

negligence if the act is so unreasonable that it falls outside the proper ambit 

of that discretion. In effect, this would require that the act to be unlawful in 

the public law sense under the Wednesbury principle. House of Lords 

further held in Barrett v. Enfield London Borough Council [2001] 2 AC 

550 that where a plaintiff claims damages for personal injuries which he 

alleges have been caused by decisions negligently taken in the exercise of a 

statutory discretion, and provided that the decisions do not involve issues of 

policy which the courts are ill-equipped to adjudicate upon, it is preferable 

for the courts to decide the validity of the plaintiff's claim by applying 

directly the common law concept of negligence than by applying as a 

preliminary test the public law concept of Wednesbury unreasonableness to 

determine if the decision fell outside the ambit of the statutory discretion. 

 69

7. Later, House of Lords speaking through Lord Slynn stated as follows: 

"the House decided in Barrett v Enfield London Borough Council (supra) 

that the fact that acts which are claimed to be negligent are carried out 

within the ambit of a statutory discretion is not in itself a reason why it 

should be held that no claim for negligence can be brought in respect of 

them. It is only where what is done has involved the weighing of competing 

public interests or has been dictated by considerations on which Parliament 

could not have intended that the courts would substitute their views for the 

views of Ministers or officials that the courts will hold the issue is non-

justiciable on the ground that the decision was made in the exercise of a 

statutory discretion." Both Barrett and Phelps, it may be noted, have 

highlighted the fact that a public body may be liable for acts done which fell 

within its ambit of discretion without the claimant also having to show that 

the act done was unlawful in the public law sense, so long as the decision 

taken or act done was justiciable. 

8. Above decisions would indicate that in England also there is a lot of 

uncertainty when claims are raised against public bodies for negligence or 

violation of statutory duties. It is worth noticing that the Law Commission, 

U.K. in its consultation paper on "Administrative Redress" proposed that 

Judges should apply a `principle of modified corrective justice' when 

 70

deciding negligence claims against public bodies. (Law Commission 

Consultation Paper No.187 (2008). The Law Commission consequently 

proposed the introduction of a new touchstone of liability: `serious fault'. 

The Law Commission's most far-reaching reform proposals relate to "court 

based redress" which suggests `the creation of a specific regime for public 

bodies' based around a number of common elements such as Judges would 

apply a standard of `serious fault' in both judicial review and negligence 

proceedings. 

9. Richard Mullender in an essay on Negligence, Public Bodies and 

Ruthlessness which appeared in "The Modern Law Review" (2009) 72 (6) 

MLR 961-98, argues for a reform of negligence law (as it applies to public 

bodies) that is different from that proposed by the Law Commission, such as 

application of the proportionality principle at the third stage of the duty of 

care test applied in Caparo Industries case. 

10. Development taking place in U.K. has been highlighted only to show 

the uncertainty that one faces while deciding claims against public bodies 

and its officials. But when we look at the issues from the point of violation 

of fundamental rights, such as personal liberty, deprivation of life etc., there 

is unanimity in approach by the Courts in India, U.K. and U.S.A. and 

various other countries, that the Constitutional Courts have a duty to protect 

 71

those rights and mitigate the damage caused. Violation of such rights often 

described as constitutional torts. 

11. The concept of Constitutional Tort and Compensatory jurisprudence 

found its expression in Devaki Nandan Prasad v. State of Bihar 1983 (4) 

SCC 20 where the petitioner's claim for pension was delayed for over twelve 

years. This Court awarded Rs.25,000/- as against authorities after having 

found that the harassment was intentional, deliberate and motivated. 

Liability to compensate for infringement of fundamental rights guaranteed 

under Article 21 was successfully raised in Khatri & Others v. State of 

Bihar & Others (1981) 1 SCC 627 (Bhagalpur Blinded prisoners case). 

In Rudal Shah v. State of Bihar, (1983) 4 SCC 141, this Court found that 

the petitioner's prolonged detention in the prison after his acquittal was 

wholly unjustified and illegal and held that Article 21 will be denuded of its 

significant content if the power of the Supreme Court was limited to passing 

orders of release from illegal detention. Court ordered that to prevent 

violation of that right and secure due compliance with the mandate of Article 

21, it has to mulct its violators in the payment of monetary compensation. 

Court held that right to compensation is thus some palliative for the unlawful 

acts of instrumentalities of the State which act in the name of public interest 

and which present for their protection the powers of the State as shield. 

 72

Reference may also be made to the judgments of this Court in Sebastian M. 

Hongray v. Union of India, AIR 1984 SC 1026, Bhim Singh v. State of J. 

& K. (AIR 1986 SC 494), Saheli v. Commissioner of Police, Delhi, (AIR 

1990 SC 513), Inder Singh v. State of Punjab (AIR 1995 SC 1949), Radha 

Bai v. Union Territory of Pondicherry AIR 1995 SC 1476, Lucknow 

Development Authority v. M.K. Gupta (AIR 1994 SC 787), Delhi Domestic 

Working Women's Forum v. Union of India, (1995) 1 SCC 14, Gudalure 

M.J. Cherian v. Union of India 1995 Supp (3) SCC 387, Sube Singh v. 

State of Haryana 2006 (3) SCC 178 etc. Specific reference may be made to 

the decision of this Court in Nilabati Behera v. State of Orissa (AIR 1993 

SC 1960), wherein this Court held that the concept of sovereign immunity is 

not applicable to the cases of violation of fundamental rights and 

summarized as follows:

 "A claim in public law for compensation for contravention of human rights 

 and fundamental freedoms, the protection of which is guaranteed in the 

 Constitution is an acknowledged remedy for enforcement and protection of 

 such rights, and such a claim based on strict liability made by resorting to a 

 constitutional remedy provided for the enforcement of a fundamental right is 

 distinct from, and in addition to, the remedy in private law for damages for 

 the tort resulting from the contravention of the fundamental right. The 

 defence of sovereign immunity being inapplicable, and alien to the concept 

 of guarantee of fundamental rights, there can be no question of such a 

 defence being available in the constitutional remedy. It is this principle 

 which justifies award of monetary compensation for contravention of 

 fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution when that is the only 

 practicable mode of redress available for the contravention made by the 

 State or its servants in the purported exercise of their powers, and 

 enforcement of the fundamental right is claimed by resort to the remedy in 

 public law under the Constitution by recourse to Articles 32 and 226 of the 

 Constitution." 

 73

12. Courts have held that due to the action or inaction of the State or its 

offices, if the fundamental rights of a citizen are infringed then the liability 

of the State, its officials and instrumentals is strict. Claim raised for 

compensation in such a case is not a private law claim for damages, under 

which the damages recoverable are large. Claim made for compensation in 

public law is for compensating the claimants for deprivation of life and 

personal liberty which has nothing to do with a claim in a private law claim 

in tort in an ordinary civil court.

13. This Court in Union of India v. Prabhakaran (2008) (9) SCC 527, 

extended the principle to cover public utilities like the railways, electricity 

distribution companies, public corporations and local bodies which may be 

social utility undertakings not working for private profit. In Prabhakaran 

(supra) a woman fell on a railway track and was fatally run over and her 

husband demanded compensation. Railways argued that she was negligent 

as she tried to board a moving train. Rejecting the plea of the Railways, this 

Court held that her "contributory negligence" should not be considered in 

such untoward incidents - the railways has "strict liability". A strict liability 

in torts, private or constitutional do not call for a finding of intent or 

negligence. In such a case highest degree of care is expected from private 

and public bodies especially when the conduct causes physical injury or 

 74

harm to persons. The question as to whether the law imposes a strict 

liability on the state and its officials primarily depends upon the purpose and 

object of the legislation as well. When activities are hazardous and if they 

are inherently dangerous the statute expects highest degree of care and if 

someone is injured because of such activities, the State and its officials are 

liable even if they could establish that there was no negligence and that it 

was not intentional. Public safety legislations generally falls in that category 

of breach of statutory duty by a public authority. To decide whether the 

breach is actionable, the Court must generally look at the statute and its 

provisions and determine whether legislature in its wisdom intended to give 

rise to a cause of action in damages and whether the claimant is intended to 

be protected. 

14. But, in a case, where life and personal liberty have been violated the 

absence of any statutory provision for compensation in the Statute is of no 

consequence. Right to life guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution 

of India is the most sacred right preserved and protected under the 

Constitution, violation of which is always actionable and there is no 

necessity of statutory provision as such for preserving that right. Article 21 

of the Constitution of India has to be read into all public safety statutes, 

since the prime object of public safety legislation is to protect the individual 

 75

and to compensate him for the loss suffered. Duty of care expected from 

State or its officials functioning under the public safety legislation is, 

therefore, very high, compared to the statutory powers and supervision 

expected from officers functioning under the statutes like Companies Act, 

Cooperative Societies Act and such similar legislations. When we look at 

the various provisions of the Cinematographic Act, 1952 and the Rules made 

thereunder, the Delhi Building Regulations and the Electricity Laws the duty 

of care on officials was high and liabilities strict. 

CONSTITUTIONAL TORTS - MEASURE OF DAMAGES

15. Law is well settled that a Constitutional Court can award monetary 

compensation against State and its officials for its failure to safeguard 

fundamental rights of citizens but there is no system or method to measure 

the damages caused in such situations. Quite often the courts have a 

difficult task in determining damages in various fact situations. The 

yardsticks normally adopted for determining the compensation payable in a 

private tort claims are not as such applicable when a constitutional court 

determines the compensation in cases where there is violation of 

fundamental rights guaranteed to its citizens. In D.K. Basu vs. Union of 

India (1997) 1 SCC 416, a Constitution Bench of this Court held that there 

is no strait jacket formula for computation of damages and we find that there 

 76

is no uniformity or yardstick followed in awarding damages for violation of 

fundamental rights. In Rudal Shah's case (supra) this Court used the 

terminology "Palliative" for measuring the damages and The formula of "Ad 

hoc" was applied in Sebastian Hongary's case (supra) the expression used 

by this Court for determining the monetary compensation was "Exemplary" 

cost and the formula adopted was "Punitive" . In Bhim Singh's case, the 

expression used by the Court was "Compensation" and method adopted was 

"Tortious formula". In D.K. Basu v. Union of India (supra) the expression 

used by this Court for determining the compensation was "Monetary 

Compensation". The formula adopted was "Cost to Cost" method. Courts 

have not, therefore, adopted a uniform criteria since no statutory formula has 

been laid down. 

16. Constitutional Courts all over the world have to overcome these 

hurdles. Failure to precisely articulate and carefully evaluate a uniform 

policy as against State and its officials would at times tend the court to adopt 

rules which are applicable in private law remedy for which courts and 

statutes have evolved various methods, such as loss earnings, impairment of 

future earning capacity, medical expenses, mental and physical suffering, 

property damage etc. Adoption of those methods as such in computing the 

damages for violation of constitutional torts may not be proper. In Delhi 

 77

Domestic Working Women's Forum v. Union of India (supra) the apex 

Court laid down parameters in assisting the victims of rape including the 

liability of the State to provide compensation to the victims and held as 

follows :-

 "It is necessary, having regard to the directive principles contained under Article 

 38(1) of the Constitution of India to set up Criminal Injuries Compensation Board. 

 Rape victims frequently incurred substantial financial loss. Some, for example 

 were too traumatized to continue in employment. Compensation for victims shall 

 be awarded by the Court on conviction of the offender and by the Criminal Injuries 

 Compensation Board whether or not a conviction has taken place. The Board will 

 take into account the pain, suffering and shock as well as loss of earnings due to 

 pregnancy and the expenses of the child but if it is occurred as a result of rape."

17. Legal liability in damages exist solely as a remedy out of private law 

action in tort which is generally time consuming and expensive and hence 

when fundamental rights are violated claimants prefer to approach 

constitutional courts for speedy remedy. Constitutional courts, of course, 

shall invoke its jurisdiction only in extraordinary circumstances when 

serious injury has been caused due to violation of fundamental rights 

especially under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. In such 

circumstances the Court can invoke its own methods depending upon the 

facts and circumstances of each case.

 78

Constitutional Torts and Punitive Damages

18. Constitutional Courts' actions not only strive to compensate the 

victims and vindicate the constitutional rights, but also to deter future 

constitutional misconduct without proper excuse or with some collateral or 

improper motive. Constitutional courts can in appropriate cases of serious 

violation of life and liberty of the individuals award punitive damages. 

However, the same generally requires the presence of malicious intent on the 

side of the wrong doer, i.e. an intentional doing of some wrongful act. 

Compensatory damages are intended to provide the claimant with a 

monetary amount necessary to recoup/replace what was lost, since damages 

in tort are generally awarded to place the claimants in the position he would 

have been in, had the tort not taken place which are generally quantified 

under the heads of general damages and special damages. Punitive damages 

are intended to reform or to deter the wrong doer from indulging in conduct 

similar to that which formed the basis for the claim. Punitive damages are 

not intended to compensate the claimant which he can claim in an ordinary 

private law claim in tort. Punitive damages are awarded by the 

constitutional court when the wrong doer's conduct was egregiously 

deceitful. Lord Patrick Devlin in leading case on the point Rookes v. 

Barnard [1964] All E.R. 367 delineated certain circumstances which satisfy 

 79

the test for awarding punitive damages such as the conduct must have been 

oppressive, arbitrary, or unconstitutional, the conduct was calculated to 

make profit for the wrong doer and that the statute expressly authorizes 

awarding of punitive damages. Above principles are, however, not 

uniformly followed by English Courts though the House of Lords in a 

decision in Attorney-General Vs. Blake [2001] 1 AC 268, awarded punitive 

damages when it was found the defendant had profited from publishing a 

book and was asked to give an account of his profits gained from writing the 

book. In this case where the wrong doer was made to give up the profits 

made, through restitution for wrongs, certainly the claimant gained damages. 

In United States, in a few States, punitive damages are determined based on 

statutes. But often criticisms are raised because of the high imposition of 

punitive damages by courts. The Supreme Court of United States has 

rendered several decisions limiting the awards of punitive damages through 

the due process of law clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. In 

BMW of North America Inc. v. Gore 517 U.S. 559 (1996) the Court ruled 

that the punitive damages must be reasonable, as determined based on the 

degree of reprehensibility of the conduct, the ratio of punitive damages to 

compensatory damages and any criminal or civil penalties applicable to the 

conduct. In Philip Morris USA v. Williams 549 U.S. 346 (2007), the Court 

ruled that the award of punitive damages cannot be imposed for the direct 

 80

harm that the misconduct caused to others, but may consider harm to others 

as a function of determining how reprehensible it was. There is no hard and 

fast rule to measure the punitive damages to determine such a claim. In 

United States in number of cases the Court has indicated that the ratio 10:1 

or higher between punitive and compensatory damages is held to be 

unconstitutional. Several factors may gauge on constitutional court in 

determining the punitive damages such as contumacious conduct of the 

wrong doer, the nature of the statute, gravity of the fault committed, the 

circumstances etc. Punitive damages can be awarded when the wrongdoers' 

conduct `shocks the conscience' or is `outrageous' or there is a willful and 

`wanton disregard' for safety requirements. Normally, there must be a direct 

connection between the wrongdoer's conduct and the victim's injury. 

Need for legislation

19. Need for a comprehensive legislation dealing with tortious liability of 

State, its instrumentalities has been highlighted by this Court and the 

academic world on various occasions and it is high time that we develop a 

sophisticated jurisprudence of Public Law Liability. 

20. Due to lack of legislation, the Courts dealing with the cases of tortious 

claims against State and his officials are not following a uniform pattern 

 81

while deciding those claims and this at times leads to undesirable 

consequences and arbitrary fixation of compensation amount.

21. Government of India on the recommendations of the first Law 

Commission introduced two bills on the Government liability in torts in the 

years 1965-67 in the Lok Sabha but those bills lapsed. In Kasturi Lal's case 

(supra), this Court has highlighted the need for a comprehensive legislation 

which was reiterated by this Court in various subsequent decisions as well. 

22. Public Authorities are now made liable in damages in U.K. under the 

Human Rights Act, 1998. Section 6 of the Human Rights Act, 1998 makes a 

Public Authority liable for damages if it is found to have committed breach 

of human rights. The Court of Appeal in England in Anufijeva Vs. 

London Borough Southwork 2004 (2) WLR 603, attempted to answer 

certain important questions as to how the damages should be awarded for 

breach of human rights and how should damages be assessed. Further, such 

claims are also dealt by Ombudsmen created by various Statutes, they are 

independent and impartial officials, who investigate compliance of the 

citizens in cases mal-administration. The experience shows that majority of 

the Ombudsman's recommendations are complied in practice, though they 

are not enforceable in Courts. 

 82

23. The European Court of Justice has developed a sophisticated 

jurisprudence concerning liability in damages regarding liability of public 

bodies for the loss caused by administrative Acts. We have highlighted all 

these facts only to indicate that rapid changes are taking place all over the 

world to uphold the rights of the citizens against the wrong committed by 

Statutory Authorities and local bodies. 

24. Despite the concern shown by this Court, it is unfortunate that no 

legislation has been enacted to deal with such situations. We hope and trust 

that utmost attention would be given by the legislature for bringing in 

appropriate legislation to deal with claims in Public Law for violation of 

fundamental rights, guaranteed to the citizens at the hands of the State and 

its officials. 

 .................................J

 [R. V. Raveendran]

 .................................J

 [K. S. Radhakrishnan]

New Delhi;October 13, 2011. 

About advocatemmmohan

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Discussion

2 thoughts on “Victims of Uphaar Tragedy = apex court felt that there is no appropriate laws for dealing with this type of cases=These appeals relate to the fire at Uphaar Cinema Theatre in Green Park, South Delhi on 13.6.1997, resulting in the death of 59 patrons and injury to 103 patrons. During the matinee show of a newly released film on 13.6.1997, the patrons of the cinema hall which was full were engrossed in the film. Shortly after the interval, a transformer of Delhi Vidyut Board installed in the ground floor parking area of Uphaar Cinema, caught fire. The oil from the transformer leaked and found its way to the passage outside where many cars were parked. Two cars were parked immediately adjoining the entrance of the transformer room. The burning oil spread the fire to nearby cars and from then to the other parked cars. The burning of (i) the transformer oil (ii) the diesel and petrol from the parked vehicles (iii) the upholstery material, paint and other chemicals of the vehicles and (iv) foam and other articles stored in the said parking area generated huge quantity of fumes and smoke which consisted of carbon monoxide and several poisonous gases. As the ground floor parking was covered all round by walls, and the air was blowing in from the entry and exit points, the smoke and noxious fumes/smoke could not find its way out into open atmosphere and was blown towards the staircase leading to the balcony exit. On account of the chimney effect, the smoke travelled up. Smoke also travelled to the air-conditioner ducts and was sucked in and released into the auditorium. The smoke and the noxious fumes stagnated in the upper reaches of the auditorium, particularly in the balcony area. By then the electricity went off =(a) The compensation awarded by the High Court in the case of death is reduced from Rs.18 lacs to Rs.10 lacs (in the case of those aged more than 20 years) and Rs.15 lacs to Rs. 7.5 lacs (in the case of those aged 20 years and less). The said sum is payable to legal representatives of the deceased to be determined by a brief and summary enquiry by the Registrar General (or nominee of learned Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court). (b) The compensation of Rs.One lakh awarded by the High Court in the case of each of the 103 injured persons is affirmed. (c) The interest awarded from the date of the writ petition on the aforesaid sums at the rate of 9% per annum is affirmed. (d) If the legal representatives of any deceased victim are not satisfied with the compensation awarded, they are permitted to file an application for compensation with supporting documentary proof (to show the age and the income), before the Registrar General, Delhi High Court. If such an application if filed within three months, it shall not be rejected on the ground of delay. The Registrar General or such other Member of Higher Judiciary nominated by the learned Chief Justice/Acting Chief Justice of the High Court shall decide those applications in accordance with paras above and place the matter before the Division Bench of the

  1. I am very interested in learning more about Indian laws. As an attorney in licensed in Kansas and Missouri, USA, I have a case that requires me to lend a hand to assist my client with laws in India.

    Posted by Injured Person Advocate | October 25, 2011, 11:38 PM
    • you are always welcome learning is the wonderful and great processes . comparative study is a beautiful one. very nice to have your contact through this website.
      with regards
      advocatemmmohan

      Posted by advocatemmmohan | October 26, 2011, 10:34 AM

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