published in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/imgs1.aspx?filename=40498
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO.4941 OF 2013
(Arising out of SLP(C) No. 18837 of 2006)
Association for Environment Protection ….Appellant
State of Kerala and others ….Respondents
J U D G M E N T
G.S. SINGHVI, J.
1. Leave granted.
2. Since time immemorial, people across the world have always made efforts
to preserve and protect the natural resources like air, water, plants, flora and
fauna. Ancient scriptures of different countries are full of stories of man’s zeal to
protect the environment and ecology. Our sages and saints always preached and
also taught the people to worship earth, sky, rivers, sea, plants, trees and every
form of life. Majority of people still consider it as their sacred duty to protect the
plants, trees, rivers, wells, etc., because it is believed that they belong to all living
3. The ancient Roman Empire developed a legal theory known as the “Doctrine of the Public Trust”. It was founded on the premise that certain common
properties such as air, sea, water and forests are of immense importance to the
people in general and they must be held by the Government as a trustee for the
free and unimpeded use by the general public and it would be wholly unjustified
to make them a subject of private ownership. The doctrine enjoins upon the Government to protect the resources for the enjoyment of the general public rather
than to permit their use for private ownership or commercial exploitation to satisfy the greed of few.
4. Although, the Constitution of India, which was enforced on 26.1.1950 did
not contain any express provision for protection of environment and ecology, the
people continued to treat it as their social duty to respect the nature, natural resources and protect environment and ecology. After 26 years, Article 48-A was
inserted in Part IV of the Constitution and the State was burdened with the responsibility of making an endeavour to protect and improve the environment and
to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country. By the same amendment,
Fundamental Duties of the citizens were enumerated in the form of Article 51-A
(Part-IV A). These include the duty to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures [Article 51-A(g)].
5. The Courts in different jurisdictions have, time and again, invoked the public trust doctrine for giving judicial protection to environment, ecology and natural resources. This Court also recognized the importance of the public trust doctrine and applied the same in several cases for protecting natural resources which
have been treated as public properties and are held by the Government as trustee
of the people. The judgment in M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath (1997) 1 SCC 388 is
an important milestone in the development of new jurisprudence by the Courts in
this country for protection of environment. In that judgment, the Court considered the question whether a private company running tourists resort in KulluManali valley could block the flow of Beas river and create a new channel to divert the river to at least one kilometer down stream. After adverting to the theoretical and philosophical basis of the public trust doctrine and judgments in Illinois Central Railroad Co. v. People of the State of Illinois, 146 US 387; Gould v.
Greylock Reservation Commission 350 Mass 410 (1966); Sacco v. Development
of Public Works, 532 Mass 670; Robbins v. Deptt. of Public Works 244 NE 2d
577 and National Audubon Society v. Superior Court of Alpine County 33 Cal 3d
419, this Court observed:
“Our legal system — based on English common law — includes the public trust doctrine as part of its jurisprudence. The
State is the trustee of all natural resources which are by nature
meant for public use and enjoyment. Public at large is the beneficiary of the sea-shore, running waters, airs, forests and ecologically fragile lands. The State as a trustee is under a legal duty
to protect the natural resources. These resources meant for public use cannot be converted into private ownership.
We are fully aware that the issues presented in this case illustrate the classic struggle between those members of the public
who would preserve our rivers, forests, parks and open lands in
their pristine purity and those charged with administrative responsibilities who, under the pressures of the changing needs of
an increasingly complex society, find it necessary to encroach
to some extent upon open lands heretofore considered inviolate
to change. The resolution of this conflict in any given case is
for the legislature and not the courts. If there is a law made by
Parliament or the State Legislatures the courts can serve as an
instrument of determining legislative intent in the exercise of its
powers of judicial review under the Constitution. But in the absence of any legislation, the executive acting under the doctrine
of public trust cannot abdicate the natural resources and convert
them into private ownership, or for commercial use. The aesthetic use and the pristine glory of the natural resources, the environment and the ecosystems of our country cannot be permitted to be eroded for private, commercial or any other use unless
the courts find it necessary, in good faith, for the public good
and in public interest to encroach upon the said resources.”
6. In M.I. Builders Pvt. Ltd. v. Radhey Shyam Sahu (1999) 6 SCC 464, the
Court applied public trust doctrine for upholding the order of Allahabad High
Court which had quashed the decision of Lucknow Nagar Mahapalika permitting
appellant – M.I. Builders Pvt. Ltd. to construct an underground shopping complex
in Jhandewala Park, Aminabad Market, Lucknow, and directed demolition of the
construction made on the park land. The High Court had noted that Lucknow Nagar Mahapalika had entered into an agreement with the appellant for construction
of shopping complex and given it full freedom to lease out the shops and also to
sign agreement on its behalf and held that this was impermissible. On appeal by
the builders, this Court held that the terms of agreement were unreasonable, unfair
and atrocious. The Court then invoked the public trust doctrine and held that being a trustee of the park on behalf of the public, the Nagar Mahapalika could not
have transferred the same to the private builder and thereby deprived the residents
of the area of the quality of life to which they were entitled under the Constitution
and Municipal Laws.
7. In Intellectuals Forum, Tirupathi v. State of A.P. (2006) 3 SCC 549, this
Court again invoked the public trust doctrine in a matter involving the challenge
to the systematic destruction of percolation, irrigation and drinking water tanks in
Tirupati town, referred to some judicial precedents including M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath (supra), M.I. Builders Pvt. Ltd. (supra), National Audubon Society
(supra), and observed:
“This is an articulation of the doctrine from the angle of the affirmative duties of the State with regard to public trust. Formulated from a
negatory angle, the doctrine does not exactly prohibit the alienation of
the property held as a public trust. However, when the State holds a
resource that is freely available for the use of the public, it provides
for a high degree of judicial scrutiny on any action of the Government, no matter how consistent with the existing legislations, that attempts to restrict such free use. To properly scrutinise such actions of
the Government, the courts must make a distinction between the Government’s general obligation to act for the public benefit, and the special, more demanding obligation which it may have as a trustee of certain public resources…..”
8. In Fomento Resorts and Hotels Ltd. v. Minguel Martins (2009) 3 SCC 571,
this Court was called upon to consider whether the appellant was entitled to block
passage to the beach by erecting fence in the garb of protecting its property. After
noticing the judgments to which reference has been made hereinabove, the Court
“The public trust doctrine enjoins upon the Government to protect the
resources for the enjoyment of the general public rather than to permit
their use for private ownership or commercial purposes. This doctrine
puts an implicit embargo on the right of the State to transfer public
properties to private party if such transfer affects public interest, mandates affirmative State action for effective management of natural resources and empowers the citizens to question ineffective management thereof.
The heart of the public trust doctrine is that it imposes limits and obligations upon government agencies and their administrators on behalf
of all the people and especially future generations. For example, renewable and non-renewable resources, associated uses, ecological values or objects in which the public has a special interest (i.e. public
lands, waters, etc.) are held subject to the duty of the State not to impair such resources, uses or values, even if private interests are involved. The same obligations apply to managers of forests, monuments, parks, the public domain and other public assets. Professor
Joseph L. Sax in his classic article, “The Public Trust Doctrine in Natural Resources Law: Effective Judicial Intervention” (1970), indicates
that the public trust doctrine, of all concepts known to law, constitutes
the best practical and philosophical premise and legal tool for protecting public rights and for protecting and managing resources, ecological values or objects held in trust.
The public trust doctrine is a tool for exerting long-established public
rights over short-term public rights and private gain. Today every person exercising his or her right to use the air, water, or land and associated natural ecosystems has the obligation to secure for the rest of us
the right to live or otherwise use that same resource or property for the
long-term and enjoyment by future generations. To say it another way,
a landowner or lessee and a water right holder has an obligation to use
such resources in a manner as not to impair or diminish the people’s
rights and the people’s long-term interest in that property or resource,
including down slope lands, waters and resources.
xxxx xxxx xxxx
We reiterate that natural resources including forests, water bodies,
rivers, seashores, etc. are held by the State as a trustee on behalf of the
people and especially the future generations. These constitute common properties and people are entitled to uninterrupted use thereof.
The State cannot transfer public trust properties to a private party, if
such a transfer interferes with the right of the public and the court can
invoke the public trust doctrine and take affirmative action for protecting the right of people to have access to light, air and water and also
for protecting rivers, sea, tanks, trees, forests and associated natural
9. We have prefaced disposal of this appeal by discussing the public trust
doctrine and its applicability in different situations because the Division Bench of
the Kerala High Court, which dealt with the writ petition filed by the appellant for
restraining the respondents from constructing a building (hotel/restaurant) on the
banks of river Periyar within the area of Aluva Municipality skirted the real issue
and casually dismissed the writ petition only on the ground that while the
appellant had questioned the construction of a hotel, the respondents were actually
constructing a restaurant as part of the project for renovation and beautification of
10. The people of the State of Kerala, which is also known world over as the
‘God’s Own Country’ are very much conscious of the imperative of protecting
environment and ecology in general and the water bodies, i.e., the rivers and the
lakes in particular, which are integral part of their culture, heritage and an
important source of livelihood. This appeal is illustrative of the continuing
endeavour of the people of the State to ensure that their rivers are protected from
all kinds of man made pollutions and/or other devastations.
11. The appellant is a registered body engaged in the protection of environment
in the State of Kerala. It has undertaken scientific studies of environment and
ecology, planted trees in public places and published magazines on the subjects of
environment and ecology. In 2005, Aluva Municipality reclaimed a part of
Periyar river within its jurisdiction and the District Tourism Promotion Council,
Ernakulam decided to construct a restaurant on the reclaimed land by citing
convenience of the public coming on Sivarathri festival as the cause. The
proposal submitted by the District Tourism Promotion Council was forwarded to
the State Government by the Director, Department of Tourism by including the
same in the project for renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park. Vide
order dated 20.5.2005, the State Government accorded administrative sanction for
implementation of the project at an estimated cost of Rs.55,72,432/-.
12. When the District Promotion Council started construction of the building
on the reclaimed land, the appellant filed Writ Petition (C) No.436/2006 and
prayed that the respondents be restrained from continuing with the construction of
building on the banks of river Periyar and to remove the construction already
made. These prayers were founded on the following assertions:
a) Periyar river is a holy river called “Dakshin Ganga”, on the banks of
which famous Sivarathri festival is conducted.
b) The river provides water to lakhs of people residing within the
jurisdiction of 44 local bodies on its either side.
c) In 1989, a study was conducted by an expert body and Periyar Action
Plan was submitted to the Government for protecting the river but the latter
has not taken any action.
d) In December, 2005, Aluva Municipality reclaimed the land which
formed part of the river and in the guise of promotion of tourism, efforts are
being made to construct a hotel.
e) The construction of hotel will adversely affect the flow of water as
well as the river bed.
f) The construction of the building will adversely affect Marthanda
g) The respondents have undertaken construction without conducting
any environmental impact assessment and in violation of the provisions of
Kerala Protection of River Banks and Regulation of Removal of Sand Act,
h) The construction of hotel building is ultra vires the provisions of
notification dated 13.1.1978 issued by the State Government, which
mandates assessment of environmental impact as a condition precedent for
execution of any project costing more than Rs.10,00,000/-.
13. In the written statement filed on behalf of the respondents, the following
averments were made:
(i) District Tourism Promotion Council has undertaken construction of a
restaurant and not a hotel as part of the project involving
redevelopment and beautification of Manalpuram Park.
(ii) The State Government has accorded sanction vide G.O. dated
20.5.2005 for construction of a restaurant.
(iii) The restaurant is meant to serve large number of people who come
during Sivarathri celebrations.
(iv) The construction of restaurant will neither obstruct free flow of water
in the river nor cause damage to the ecology of the area.
(v) There will be no diversion of water and the strength of the pillars of
Marthanda Varma Bridge will not be affected.
14. The Division Bench of the High Court took cognizance of the sanction
accorded by the State Government vide order dated 20.5.2005 for renovation and
beautification of Manalpuram Park and dismissed the writ petition by simply
observing that only a restaurant is being constructed and not a hotel, as claimed
by the appellant. The cryptic reasons recorded by the High Court for dismissing
the writ petition are extracted below:
“From the facts as gathered above, it transpires that no hotel at all is
being constructed in the river belt. The petitioner does not appear to
have ascertained the correct facts before filing the present petition.
Main allegation by the petitioner that a hotel is being constructed on
the banks of Periyar river is found to be incorrect. There is no merit
in this writ petition. It is hereby dismissed.”
15. Shri Deepak Prakash, learned senior counsel for the appellant invited the
Court’s attention to order dated 13.1.1978 issued by the State Government and
argued that the sanction accorded by the State Government on 20.5.2005 for
renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park did not have the effect of
modifying G.O. dated 13.1.1978 which mandates that all development schemes
costing Rs.10 lakhs or more should be referred to the Environmental Planning and
Coordination Committee for review and assessment. Learned counsel submitted
that unless the project was reserved for consideration by the Committee
constituted by the State Government, the respondents could not have undertaken
construction of the restaurant.
16. Learned counsel for the respondents could not draw our attention to any
document to show that the construction of restaurant building was undertaken
after obtaining clearance from the Environmental Planning and Coordination
Committee as per the requirement of G.O. dated 13.1.1978. She, however,
submitted that the construction of restaurant which is an integral part of the
project relating to renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park is not going
to adversely impact the flow of Periyar river or otherwise affect the environment
and ecology of the area.
17. We have considered the respective arguments and scrutinized the record.
On 13.1.1978, the Government of Kerala accepted the recommendations made by
the State Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination and issued an
order, which was published in Official Gazette dated 7.2.1978 for review and
assessment of environmental implications of various projects. The relevant
portions of that order are reproduced below:
“In the light of the recommendation of the State Committee on Environmental Planning and Co-operation in their
second meeting held on 23.7.1977, Government are
pleased to order as follows:
1. All development schemes costing Rs.10 lakhs and above will
be referred to the Committee on Environmental Planning and
Co-ordination for review and assessment of environmental implications in order to integrate environmental
concerns and the clearance of the committee will be obtained before the scheme share sanctioned and taken up
2. In the case of projects costing Rs.25 lakhs and above the Department concerned will while referring the projects for review
and clearance by the committee furnish detailed and comprehensive environmental impact statement for the project
prepared with the help of experts.
3. In the case of schemes costing less than Rs.10 lakhs, the Environmental implication will be assessed by the concerned department in the light of guidelines formulated by the committee
and the concerned department will be responsible to ensure that
suitable remedial measures for protecting the environment are
incorporated in the scheme itself before the schemes are sanctioned and taken up for implementation. If the department concerned feels certain that with the safeguards provided in the
scheme, the ecological stability and purity of environment will
be maintained they can go ahead with the scheme without reference to the committee. Doubtful cases will however be referred
to the committee for clearance.
By order of the Government.
18. By G.O. dated 20.5.2005, the State Government accorded administrative
sanction for renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park and construction
of a restaurant at Aluva at an estimated cost of Rs.55,72,432/-. That order reads as
“GOVERNMENT OF KERALA
Department of Tourism -Working Group on Plan Schemes –
Renovation of Manalppuram Park and construction of
Restaurant at Aluva – Administrative Sanction accorded –
TOURISM (A) DEPARTMENT
G.O.(Rt) No.3974/05/GAD. Dated, Thiruvananthapuram
Letter No.C2-22446/04, dated 11.04.2005 from the
Director, Department of Tourism, Thiruvananthapuram.
The Aluva Manalppuram is a significant pilgrim centre
as well as tourism spot. The Aluva Manalppuram is famous for
Shivarathri celebrations. The pilgrims visiting Kalady, the
birthplace of Shri Shankaracharya include this spot also in the
schedule of visit. The Director, Department of Tourism as per
the letter read above has forwarded a proposal submitted by the
District Collector and Chairman, DTPC, Ernakulam for the
renovation of the Manalppuram Park and construction of
Restaurant at Aluva and has requested for Administrative
Sanction for the project at an estimated cost of Rs.55,72,432/-
as detailed below.
1. Beautification of Manalppuram Park Rs.24,10,421/-
2. Construction of Restaurant Rs.3l,62,011/-
The Working Group that met on 29.04.2005 considered
the proposal of the Director, Department of Tourism and
approved it. Sanction is therefore accorded for the Project for
the renovation of Manalppuram Park and construction of
Restaurant at Aluva at an estimated cost of Rs.55,72,432 /-
(Rupees Fifty Five Lakhs Seventy Two Thousand Four
Hundred and Thirty two only) .
The expenditure on this account will be met from the
head of account “3452-80-800-90(29)-Upgradation and creation
of infrastructure facilities at Tourist Centres (Plan)”. The work
will be executed through DTPC, Ernakulam and will be
completed within a period of six months.
By Order of the Governor
D. Saraswathy Amma,
19. There is nothing in the language of G.O. dated 20.5.2005 from which it can
be inferred that while approving the proposal forwarded by the Director,
Department of Tourism for renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park at
an estimated cost of Rs.55,72,432/-, the State Government had amended G.O.
dated 13.1.1978 or otherwise relaxed the conditions embodied therein. The
record also does not show that the Department of Tourism had furnished a
detailed comprehensive environmental impact statement for the project so as to
enable the Committee to make appropriate review and assessment. Therefore, it
must be held that the execution of the project including construction of restaurant
is ex facie contrary to the mandate of G.O. dated 13.1.1978, which was issued by
the State in discharge of its Constitutional obligation under Article 48-A.
Unfortunately, the Division Bench of the High Court ignored this crucial issue
and casually dismissed the writ petition without examining the serious
implications of the construction of a restaurant on the land reclaimed by Aluva
Municipality from the river.
20. G.O. dated 13.1.1978 is illustrative of the State Government’s commitment
to protect and improve the environment as envisaged under Article 48A. The
object of this G.O. is to ensure that no project costing more than Rs.10 lakhs
should be executed and implemented without a comprehensive evaluation by an
expert body which can assess possible impact of the project on the environment
and ecology of the area including water bodies, i.e., rivers, lakes etc. If the project
had been referred to the Environmental Planning and Co-ordination Committee
for review and assessment of environmental implications then it would have
certainly examined the issue relating to desirability and feasibility of constructing
a restaurant, the possible impact of such construction on the river bed and the
nearby bridge as also its impact on the people of the area. By omitting to refer
the project to the Committee, the District Tourism Promotion Council and the
Department of Tourism conveniently avoided scrutiny of the project in the light of
the parameters required to be kept in view for protection of environment of the
area and the river. The subterfuge employed by the District Promotion Council
and the Department of Tourism has certainly resulted in violation of the
fundamental right to life guaranteed to the people of the area under Article 21 of
the Constitution and we do not find any justification to condone violation of the
mandate of order dated 13.1.1978.
21. In the result, the appeal is allowed and the impugned order is set aside. As
a sequel to this, the writ petition filed by the appellant is allowed and the
respondents are directed to demolish the structure raised for establishing a
restaurant as part of renovation and beautification of Manalpuram Park at Aluva.
The needful be done within a period of three months from today.
New Delhi, …….……..…..………………..J.
July 2, 2013. [SHARAD ARVIND BOBDE]