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Art.14 of constitution – admissions to Medical colleges , PG and Dental – Bulletin issued only Karnataka origin eligible to apply – challenged – Apex court held that In the result, we allow the writ petitions, declare sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins for post graduate medical and dental courses for PGET-2014 as ultra-vires Article 14 of the Constitution and null and void. = Vishal Goyal & Ors. … Petitioners Versus State of Karnataka & Ors. … Respondents = 2014 ( April.Part ) judis.nic.in/supremecourt/filename=41466

      Art.14 of constitution – admissions to Medical colleges , PG and Dental – Bulletin issued only Karnataka origin eligible to apply – challenged –  Apex court held that In the result, we allow the writ petitions, declare sub-clause (a)  of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins for post  graduate  medical  and dental courses for PGET-2014 as ultra-vires Article 14 of  the  Constitution and null and void.  = 

The case of the petitioners is  that  by

virtue of sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of  the  two  Information  Bulletins,

they are debarred from appearing in the Entrance  Tests  for  admissions  to

MD/MS/Medical Post Graduate Diploma Courses,  2014  or  to  MDS/Dental  Post

Graduate Diploma Courses, 2014 in the State of Karnataka  even  though  they

have studied MBBS/BDS in institutions  in  the  State  of  Karnataka.   They

have, therefore,  challenged  sub-clause  (a)  of  clause  2.1  of  the  two

Information Bulletins, as ultra vires Article  14  of  the  Constitution  as

interpreted by this Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain and Others v. Union  of  India

and Others [(1984) 3 SCC 654].  They also  contend  that  in  the  aforesaid

case of Dr. Pradeep Jain  (supra),  this  Court  has  held  that  a  certain

percentage  of  seats  must  be  reserved  on  the  basis  of  institutional

preference to enable students who have  passed  MBBS  or  BDS  courses  from

medical or dental colleges in the State of Karnataka  to  get  admission  to

Post Graduate medical or dental courses in the medical  or  dental  colleges

of the State of Karnataka.  The petitioners  have,  therefore,  prayed  that

sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information  Bulletins  be  declared

as ultra vires the Constitution and  appropriate  writs  and  directions  be

issued to the respondents to permit the petitioners to  participate  in  the

admission process of MD/MS/MDS and other Post Graduate  medical  and  dental

courses in the State of Karnataka.=

  In Magan Mehrotra v. Union of India (supra) and Saurabh Chaudri v. Union  of

India (supra) also, this Court  has  approved  the  aforesaid  view  in  Dr.

Pradeep Jain’s Case that excellence  cannot  be  compromised  by  any  other

consideration for the purpose of admission to postgraduate  medical  courses

such as MD/MS and  the  like  because  that  would  be  detrimental  to  the

interests  of  the  nation  and  will  affect  the  right  to  equality   of

opportunity under Article 14 of the Constitution.

 

10.   Mr. Mariarputham is right that in Saurabh Chaudri v.  Union  of  India

(supra), this Court has held that   institutional preference  can  be  given

by a State, but in the aforesaid decision of Saurabh Chaudri,  it  has  also

been held that decision of the State to give  institutional  preference  can

be invalidated by the Court in the event it is shown that  the  decision  of

the State is ultra vires the right to  equality  under  Article  14  of  the

Constitution.  When we examine sub-clause (a)  of  clause  2.1  of  the  two

Information  Bulletins,  we  find  that  the  expression  “A  candidate   of

Karnataka Origin” who only is eligible to appear for Entrance Test has  been

so defined as to exclude a candidate who has  studied  MBBS  or  BDS  in  an

institution in the State of Karnataka but who does  not  satisfy  the  other

requirements of sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1  of  the  Information  Bulletin

for PGET-2014.  Thus, the institutional preference sought  to  be  given  by

sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the Information Bulletin  for  PGET-2014  is

clearly contrary to the judgment of this Court in Dr.  Pradeep  Jain’s  case

(supra).  To quote from paragraph 22 of the judgment in Dr.  Pradeep  Jain’s

case:

 

 

           “……  a  certain  percentage  of  seats  may   in   the   present

           circumstances,  be  reserved  on  the  basis  of   institutional

           preference in the sense that  a  student  who  has  passed  MBBS

           course from a  medical  college  or  university,  may  be  given

           preference for admission to the postgraduate course in the  same

           medical college or university…..”

 

 

Sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of  the  two  Information  Bulletins  does  not

actually give institutional preference to students who have passed  MBBS  or

BDS from Colleges or Universities in the State of Karnataka, but makes  some

of them ineligible to take the Entrance Test for admission to Post  Graduate

Medical  or  Dental  courses  in  the  State  of  Karnataka  to  which   the

Information Bulletins apply.

 

11.   We now come to the  argument  of  Mr.  Mariarputham  that  the  scheme

formulated by this Court in Dr. Dinesh Kumar and  Others  v.  Motilal  Nehru

Medical College, Allahabad and Others (supra) pursuant to  the  judgment  in

Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra) is confined to medical and  dental  colleges

or institutions run by the Union  of  India  or  a  State  Government  or  a

Municipal or other local authority and does not  apply  to  private  medical

and dental colleges or institutions.  Paragraph (1) of the scheme  on  which

Mr. Mariarputham relied on is extracted hereinbelow:

 

 

           “(1) In the first  place,  the  Scheme  has  necessarily  to  be

           confined to medical colleges or institutions run by the Union of

           India or a State  Government  or  a  municipal  or  other  local

           authority.  It cannot  apply  to  private  medical  colleges  or

           institutions unless they are instrumentality or  agency  of  the

           State or opt to join the Scheme by making 15  per  cent  of  the

           total number of seats for the MBBS/BDS course and 25 per cent of

           the  total  number  of  seats  for  the  post-graduate   course,

           available for admission on  the  basis  of  All  India  Entrance

           Examination.  Those medical colleges or  institutions  which  we

           have already excepted from the operation of the  judgment  dated

           June 22, 1984 will continue to remain outside the scope  of  the

           Scheme.”

 

This Court has, thus, said in the aforesaid  paragraph  (1)  of  the  scheme

that the scheme cannot apply to  private  medical  and  dental  colleges  or

institutions unless they are instrumentalities or agencies of the  State  or

opt to join the scheme.  The reason for this is  that  private  medical  and

dental colleges or institutions not being State or its instrumentalities  or

its agencies were not subject to the equality clauses in Article 14  of  the

Constitution, but the moment some seats in the private  medical  and  dental

colleges or institutions come to the State quota, which have  to  be  filled

up by the State or its instrumentality or its agency which  are  subject  to

the equality clauses in Article 14 of the Constitution, the principles  laid

down by this Court in Dr. Pradeep  Jain’s  case  (supra)  will  have  to  be

followed while granting admissions to the seats allotted to the State  Quota

in post graduate medical and dental courses even in private colleges.

 

12.   In the result, we allow the writ petitions, declare sub-clause (a)  of

clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins for post  graduate  medical  and

dental courses for PGET-2014 as ultra-vires Article 14 of  the  Constitution

and null and void.   The  respondent  will  now  publish  fresh  Information

Bulletins and do the admissions to the  post  graduate  medical  and  dental

courses in the Government colleges  as  well  as  the  State  quota  of  the

private colleges in accordance with the law by the end of June, 2014 on  the

basis of the results of the Entrance Test already held.  We also order  that

the general time schedule for counselling and admissions  to  post  graduate

Medical Courses in our order dated 14.03.2014 in Dr. Fraz Naseem &  Ors.  v.

Union of India will not apply to such admissions in the State  of  Karnataka

for the academic year 2014-2015.  Similarly, the general time  schedule  for

counselling and admissions for post graduate dental courses will  not  apply

to such admissions in the State of Karnataka.  The parties shall bear  their

own costs.

 

2014 ( April.Part ) judis.nic.in/supremecourt/filename=41466

A.K. PATNAIK, FAKKIR MOHAMED IBRAHIM KALIFULLA

‘REPORTABLE’

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 48 OF 2014
Vishal Goyal & Ors. … Petitioners

Versus

State of Karnataka & Ors. … Respondents
WITH

WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 70 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 72 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 75 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 65 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 92 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO.156 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 83 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 87 OF 2014
AND
WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO.196 OF 2014

 

 

J U D G M E N T

 

A.K. PATNAIK, J.
This batch of writ petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution
relates to admissions in Post Graduate Medical Dental courses in Government
medical and dental colleges as well as in the State Quota in private
medical and dental colleges in the State of Karnataka.

2. The petitioners claim that they were selected on the basis of common
entrance tests conducted by the CBSE or by the authorities of the State
Government or by the association of private medical and dental colleges in
the State of Karnataka and admitted into the MBBS/BDS courses in different
Government or private medical and dental colleges and after completing
their MBBS/BDS courses were keen to get admitted into Post Graduate medical
or dental courses in the year 2014.

3. The National Board of Examinations issued two Information Bulletins
for Post Graduate Entrance Test, 2014 (for short ‘the PGET-2014’) for
admissions to the State Quota seats in Karnataka Government Colleges and
Institutions and Karnataka Government Quota seats in private
colleges/institutions/deemed universities. One Bulletin contained all
information for admission to MD/MS/Medical Post Graduate Diploma Courses
(Medical) and the other contained all information for admission to MDS/PG
Diploma Courses (Dental). Clause 2 of these Information Bulletins lays
down the criteria for PGET-2014. Clause 2.1 of these Information Bulletins
for PGET-2014 provides that no candidate shall be admitted to a
professional educational institution unless the candidate possesses the
qualifications or eligibility to appear for the entrance test stipulated
thereunder. The said clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins, which is
identically worded for admissions to Post Graduate Medical and Post
Graduate Dental Courses, is extracted hereinbelow:
2.1. No candidate shall be admitted to a professional educational
institution unless the candidate possesses the following
qualifications or eligibility to appear for the Entrance test namely:
a. He is a citizen of India who is of Karnataka origin and has
studied MBBS/BDS degree in a Medical/Dental college situated
in Karnataka or outside Karnataka, and affiliated to any
university established by law in India recognized by Medical
Council of India and Government of India.
Explanation: “A candidate of Karnataka Origin” means a
candidate found eligible under clause (i) or (ii) below,
namely:
i. A candidate who has studied and passed in one or more
Government recognized, educational institutions located in the
State of Karnataka for a minimum period of TEN academic years
as on the last date fixed for the submission of application
form, commencing from 1st standard to MBBS/BDS and must have
appeared and passed either SSLC/10th standard or 2nd PUC/12th
standard examination from Karnataka State. In case of the
candidate who has taken more than one year to pass a class or
standard, the years of academic study is counted as one year
only.
Documents to be produced, namely:
1) SSLC or 10th Standard Marks Card;
2) 2nd PUC of 12th Standard Marks Card of the candidate;
3) Candidates Study Certificate: A study certificate from the
Head of educational institution where he or she had studied.
Further, School Study Certificates should be counter signed by
the concerned Block Education Officer (BEO)/Deputy Director of
Public Instructions (DDPI) COMPULSORILY in the proforma
prescribed;
4) Qualifying degree certificate and all phases marks card;
5) Domicile certificate issued by the Tahsildar in the
prescribed proforma (Annexure-I); and if claiming reservation
benefits: Caste/Caste Income Certificate issued by Concerned
Tahsildar – For SC/ST in Form-D, Category-1 in Form-E and 2A,
2B, 3A and 3B in Form F.
6) MCI/DCI State Council Registration Certificate.
7) Attempt Certificate issued by the concerned college
Principal.
ii. The candidate should have studied and passed 1st and 2nd
years Pre-University Examination or 11th and 12th standard
examination within the State of Karnataka from an Educational
Institution run or recognized by the State Government or
MBBS/BDS from a professional educational institution located
in Karnataka and that either of the parents should have
studied in Karnataka for a minimum period of 10 years.
Documents to be produced, namely:
1) SSLC or 10th Standard Marks Card;
2) 2nd PUC of 12th Standard Marks Card of the candidate;
3) Qualifying degree certificate and all phases marks card;
4) Domicile certificate issued by the Tahsildar in the
prescribed proforma (Annexure-I);
5) If claiming reservation benefits: Caste/Caste Income
Certificate issued by Concerned Tahsildar – For SC/ST in Form-
D, Category-1 in Form-E and 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in Form F and
6) (a) A study certificate for either of the parent having
studied for at least 10 years in Karnataka from the Head of
the educational institution where he/she had studied.
Further, school study certificates should be countersigned by
the concerned Block Educational Officer (BEO)/ Deputy Director
of Public Instructions (DDPI) COMPULSORILY in the proforma
prescribed (Annexure-III);
(b) The candidates study certificate for having studied both
1st and 2nd PUC or 11th & 12th Standard in Karnataka issued by
the head of the educational institution.
7) MCI/DCI State Council Registration Certificate
8) Attempt Certificate issued by the concerned Principal.
4. It will be clear from sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the Information
Bulletins extracted above that to be eligible to appear for the Entrance
Test, a candidate must be of “Karnataka Origin”. The Explanation under sub-
clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the Information Bulletins gives the meaning of
“A candidate of Karnataka Origin”. The case of the petitioners is that by
virtue of sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins,
they are debarred from appearing in the Entrance Tests for admissions to
MD/MS/Medical Post Graduate Diploma Courses, 2014 or to MDS/Dental Post
Graduate Diploma Courses, 2014 in the State of Karnataka even though they
have studied MBBS/BDS in institutions in the State of Karnataka. They
have, therefore, challenged sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two
Information Bulletins, as ultra vires Article 14 of the Constitution as
interpreted by this Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain and Others v. Union of India
and Others [(1984) 3 SCC 654]. They also contend that in the aforesaid
case of Dr. Pradeep Jain (supra), this Court has held that a certain
percentage of seats must be reserved on the basis of institutional
preference to enable students who have passed MBBS or BDS courses from
medical or dental colleges in the State of Karnataka to get admission to
Post Graduate medical or dental courses in the medical or dental colleges
of the State of Karnataka. The petitioners have, therefore, prayed that
sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins be declared
as ultra vires the Constitution and appropriate writs and directions be
issued to the respondents to permit the petitioners to participate in the
admission process of MD/MS/MDS and other Post Graduate medical and dental
courses in the State of Karnataka.

5. Soon after the writ petitions were filed and moved, this Court passed
orders permitting the petitioners to take the Entrance Test for admission
to Post Graduate medical and dental courses in the State of Karnataka
conducted by the National Board of Examinations and pursuant to the said
orders the petitioners have also been permitted to take the Entrance Test.
6. Learned counsel for the petitioners submitted that the judgment of
this Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra) still holds good. They
referred to the decision of this Court in Magan Mehrotra v. Union of India
[(2003) 11 SCC 186], Saurabh Chaudri v. Union of India [(2003) 11 SCC 146]
and Nikhil Himthani v. State of Uttarakhand & Others [(2013) 10 SCC 237],
in which this Court has reiterated the principles laid down in Dr. Pradeep
Jain’s case (supra). They submitted that this Court, should, therefore,
strike down sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins
as ultra vires the Constitution and direct the respondents to give
institutional preference in accordance of the judgment in Pradeep Jain’s
case.

7. In reply to the contentions of the petitioners, Mr. A. Mariarputham,
learned senior counsel appearing for the State of Karnataka, relied on the
statements of objections filed on behalf of the State of Karnataka. He
submitted that Article 371J of the Constitution is titled ‘Special
Provisions with respect to State of Karnataka’ and Clause (2) read with
Clause (1) sub-clause (C) of this Article provides that the Governor may,
by order make reservation of a proportion of seats in educational and
vocational training institutions in the Hyderabad-Karnataka region for
students who belong to that region by birth or by domicile. He submitted
that the State of Karnataka has, therefore, fixed institutional preference
quota of 50% and this was constitutionally permissible as per the judgment
of this Court in Saurabh Chaudri v. Union of India (supra).

8. Mr. Mariarputham next submitted that pursuant to the judgment of this
Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra), a scheme has been formulated by
this Court in Dr. Dinesh Kumar and Others v. Motilal Nehru Medical College,
Allahabad and Others [(1986) 3 SCC 727] and a reading of the said scheme
would show that it applies to only medical and dental colleges or
institutions run by the Union of India or a State Government or a Municipal
and other local authority. He submitted that the judgments of this Court
in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra) and in Dinesh Kumar and Others v.
Motilal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad and Others (supra), therefore, do
not apply to private medical and dental college in the State of Karnataka.
He explained that the State of Karnataka has also a quota of seats in the
private medical and dental colleges in the State of Karnataka and the seats
for Post Graduate medical and dental courses that fall in the State quota
can be filled up by the State from among the candidates of Karnataka Origin
as provided in sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information
Bulletins.

9. We have considered the submissions of learned counsel for the parties
and we find that the basis of the judgment of this Court in Dr. Pradeep
Jain’s case (supra) is Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees to
every person equality before the law and equal protection of the laws. As
explained by this court in paragraphs 12 and 13 of the judgment in Nikhil
Himthani v. State of Uttarakhand & Others (supra):
“12. Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees to every person
equality before law and equal protection of laws. In Jagadish Saran
v. Union of India (1980) 2 SCC 768, Krishna Iyer, J., writing the
judgment on behalf of the three Judges referring to Article 14 of the
Constitution held that equality of opportunity for every person in the
country is the constitutional guarantee and therefore merit must be
the test for selecting candidates, particularly in the higher levels
of education like postgraduate medical courses, such as MD. In the
language of Krishna Iyer, J. (SCC pp.778-79, para 23)
“23. Flowing from the same stream of equalism is another
limitation. The basic medical needs of a region or the
preferential push justified for a handicapped group cannot
prevail in the same measure all the highest scales of specialty
where the best skill or talent, must be handpicked by selecting
according to capability. At the level of PhD, MD, or levels of
higher proficiency, where international measure of talent is
made, where losing one great scientist or technologist in-the-
making is a national loss, the considerations we have expanded
upon a important lose their potency. Here, equality, measured
by matching excellence, has more meaning and cannot be diluted
much without grave risk.”
13. Relying on the aforesaid reasons in Jagadish Saran v. Union of
India, a three-Judge Bench of this Court in Pradeep Jain case held
excellence cannot be compromised by any other consideration for the
purpose of admission to postgraduate medical courses such as MD/MS and
the like because that would be detrimental to the interests of the
nation and therefore reservation based on residential requirement in
the State will affect the right to equality of opportunity under
Article 14 of the Constitution……..”
In Magan Mehrotra v. Union of India (supra) and Saurabh Chaudri v. Union of
India (supra) also, this Court has approved the aforesaid view in Dr.
Pradeep Jain’s Case that excellence cannot be compromised by any other
consideration for the purpose of admission to postgraduate medical courses
such as MD/MS and the like because that would be detrimental to the
interests of the nation and will affect the right to equality of
opportunity under Article 14 of the Constitution.

10. Mr. Mariarputham is right that in Saurabh Chaudri v. Union of India
(supra), this Court has held that institutional preference can be given
by a State, but in the aforesaid decision of Saurabh Chaudri, it has also
been held that decision of the State to give institutional preference can
be invalidated by the Court in the event it is shown that the decision of
the State is ultra vires the right to equality under Article 14 of the
Constitution. When we examine sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two
Information Bulletins, we find that the expression “A candidate of
Karnataka Origin” who only is eligible to appear for Entrance Test has been
so defined as to exclude a candidate who has studied MBBS or BDS in an
institution in the State of Karnataka but who does not satisfy the other
requirements of sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the Information Bulletin
for PGET-2014. Thus, the institutional preference sought to be given by
sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the Information Bulletin for PGET-2014 is
clearly contrary to the judgment of this Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case
(supra). To quote from paragraph 22 of the judgment in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s
case:
“…… a certain percentage of seats may in the present
circumstances, be reserved on the basis of institutional
preference in the sense that a student who has passed MBBS
course from a medical college or university, may be given
preference for admission to the postgraduate course in the same
medical college or university…..”
Sub-clause (a) of clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins does not
actually give institutional preference to students who have passed MBBS or
BDS from Colleges or Universities in the State of Karnataka, but makes some
of them ineligible to take the Entrance Test for admission to Post Graduate
Medical or Dental courses in the State of Karnataka to which the
Information Bulletins apply.

11. We now come to the argument of Mr. Mariarputham that the scheme
formulated by this Court in Dr. Dinesh Kumar and Others v. Motilal Nehru
Medical College, Allahabad and Others (supra) pursuant to the judgment in
Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra) is confined to medical and dental colleges
or institutions run by the Union of India or a State Government or a
Municipal or other local authority and does not apply to private medical
and dental colleges or institutions. Paragraph (1) of the scheme on which
Mr. Mariarputham relied on is extracted hereinbelow:
“(1) In the first place, the Scheme has necessarily to be
confined to medical colleges or institutions run by the Union of
India or a State Government or a municipal or other local
authority. It cannot apply to private medical colleges or
institutions unless they are instrumentality or agency of the
State or opt to join the Scheme by making 15 per cent of the
total number of seats for the MBBS/BDS course and 25 per cent of
the total number of seats for the post-graduate course,
available for admission on the basis of All India Entrance
Examination. Those medical colleges or institutions which we
have already excepted from the operation of the judgment dated
June 22, 1984 will continue to remain outside the scope of the
Scheme.”

This Court has, thus, said in the aforesaid paragraph (1) of the scheme
that the scheme cannot apply to private medical and dental colleges or
institutions unless they are instrumentalities or agencies of the State or
opt to join the scheme. The reason for this is that private medical and
dental colleges or institutions not being State or its instrumentalities or
its agencies were not subject to the equality clauses in Article 14 of the
Constitution, but the moment some seats in the private medical and dental
colleges or institutions come to the State quota, which have to be filled
up by the State or its instrumentality or its agency which are subject to
the equality clauses in Article 14 of the Constitution, the principles laid
down by this Court in Dr. Pradeep Jain’s case (supra) will have to be
followed while granting admissions to the seats allotted to the State Quota
in post graduate medical and dental courses even in private colleges.

12. In the result, we allow the writ petitions, declare sub-clause (a) of
clause 2.1 of the two Information Bulletins for post graduate medical and
dental courses for PGET-2014 as ultra-vires Article 14 of the Constitution
and null and void. The respondent will now publish fresh Information
Bulletins and do the admissions to the post graduate medical and dental
courses in the Government colleges as well as the State quota of the
private colleges in accordance with the law by the end of June, 2014 on the
basis of the results of the Entrance Test already held. We also order that
the general time schedule for counselling and admissions to post graduate
Medical Courses in our order dated 14.03.2014 in Dr. Fraz Naseem & Ors. v.
Union of India will not apply to such admissions in the State of Karnataka
for the academic year 2014-2015. Similarly, the general time schedule for
counselling and admissions for post graduate dental courses will not apply
to such admissions in the State of Karnataka. The parties shall bear their
own costs.

 
…..……………..……………………….J.
(A. K. Patnaik)

 

 
…….…………..………………………..J.
(Fakkir Mohamed Ibrahim Kalifulla)

New Delhi,
April 24, 2014.

———————–
15

 

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