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Licence is must under sec.394 (1)(e) of the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, 1888 for running a Eating house/Catering establishment by any club whether for it’s members or for commercial purpose = Brihanmumbai Mahanagarpalika and another ….Appellants versus Willingdon Sports Club and others ….Respondents = published in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/imgst.aspx?filename=40987

Licence is must under sec.394 (1)(e) of the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, 1888 for     running a Eating house/Catering establishment by any club whether for it’s members or for commercial purpose =        Section 394(1)(e) and relevant extracts of Schedule  ‘M’,  which  have   bearing on this case read as under:       … Continue reading

PIL for checking the harmful soft drinks etc = Centre for Public Interest Litigation .. Petitioner Versus Union of India and Others .. Respondents http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/imgst.aspx?filename=40892

PIL for checking the harmful soft drinks etc = The writ  petition  was  preferred  for  constituting  an  independent Expert/Technical Committee to evaluate the harmful effects  of  soft  drinks on human health, particularly on the health of the children, and also for  a direction to respondent No. 1  –  Union  of  India  –  to  put  in … Continue reading

No medical negligence – complainant died – Lrs not paid any attention – expert doctor died – = After administration of the above injection, cold blood was transfused in flagrant violation of the basic medical norm or practice and within 2/3 minutes of pushing the injection this cold blood transfusion instantly had a cascading effect on his wife and she developed convulsion-condition. According to the complainant on 15.02.97, the patient developed restlessness, insomania, severe pains all over her body and also breathing trouble. Complainant alleged that no care was taken by the Staff Nurse or the doctor and when on 16.02.97 he went to the Hospital his wife was groaning and crying. Complainant further alleged that on 16.2.97, the Duty Medical Officer without consulting Dr. R.N. Duttainstructed the nurse to inject two injections namely Fortwin I vial and Calmpose I vial to the Refractory Anemia patient in total disregard of all medical norms and ultimately his wife expired.= A perusal of the impugned order shows that the State Commission, while allowing the complaint, has placed substantial reliance upon the expert opinion of Dr. S.K. DuttaChaoudhary, produced on behalf of the Complainant. The Commission has observed that:- “In paragraphs 9,10,11 of his Affidavit (page 92 & 93 of the Paper Book) this expert doctor has opined that a person suffering from ailment or having low blood pressure on poor heart condition is never administered two medicines namely injection Calmpose and injection Fortwin and according to his opinion the Cardiac failure as recorded in the Death Certificate of the patient was directly due to the administration of the said two medicines in such a physical condition of the patient as has been already described above. The doctor has further stated that supporting treatment by way of Oxygen and Saline could have saved her. With this opinion of expert is added the circumstances that there is no record forthcoming from the O.Ps to show that the blood pressure or pulse rate of the patient was ever checked by Dr.Halder during his period of crisis before the fatal injection was administered. It is also on record that this Dr. Halder who was In-Charge did not requisition any Oxygen cylinder or mask or saline to save the life of the patient.” 4. However, during the course of hearing of this appeal, it was observed that the above medial expert examined on behalf of the Complainant before the State Commission had died before the OPs had any opportunity to cross examine him. It was therefore, decided to refer the matter to the All India Institute Medical Sciences, New Delhi for opinion. Accordingly, a four member Medical Board was constituted by the Medical Superintendent, AIIMS. Its report has been received and perused. = In another significant development during the hearing of this appeal, the Complainant Shri N.C. Majumdar passed away. The application to bring the LRs on record was allowed on 26.7.2012. However, notices sent to the LRs on 27.4.2011, 14.9.2011, 01.10.2012 and on 14.5.2013 have not yielded any results. They have remained unclaimed. It is learnt from the Registry that this amount was not withdrawn by the respondent/Complainant and is still available as deposit in the name of the Registrar of this Commission.- In the reference made by this Commission to the AIIMS, specific opinion had been sought on four points. The expert report received is directly with reference to those four points. They are listed below:- “Question (i). Whether the reaction/convulsion which the patient developed immediately after transfusion of blood on 13.02.97 is attributable to the transfusion of cold blood without bringing it to the level of normal human body temperature? Answer: There is no evidence of any reaction/convulsion on 13.02.1997 after the blood transfusion as per given medical record. Question (ii).Whether the reactions/convulsions which the patient developed after transfusion of blood on 15.02.97, were managed properly? Answer: There is no record of any convulsion on 15.02.1997. Patient had rigors (shivering) on 15.02.1997, which was managed accordingly. Question (iii). Whether the administration of injections, Calmpose and Fortwin on 16.02.97 was contra-indicative keeping in view the health condition, including the cardiac condition, of the patient ? Answer: Medical records do not mention any details of patient cardiac conditions. According to medical records inj. Fortwin & inj. Calmpose were administered intramuscularly (I/M) due to restlessness and pain. However, the reasons of restlessness and pain is difficult to assess from the medical record. Question (iv) Whether the death of the deceased on 16.02.97 is directly or indirectly attributable to the said complications which followed after blood transfusion on 13.02.97 and after administration of injections on 16.02.97. Answer: It seems unlikely that the blood transfusion on 13.02.1997 resulting in the event of death on 16.02.1997. It also seems unlikely that intramuscular (I/M) administration of Inj. Fortwin and Inj. Calmpose would have caused the cardio-respiratory arrest. Her primary condition of refractory anaemia is also not recorded properly in the medical recortds.” 7. The complaint petition before the State Commission itself accepts that the deceased was suffering from the condition of ‘refractive anaemia’. As per the medical lexicon, it is a condition of unresponsiveness to treatment. Considering this in the light of the opinion categorically expressed in the report of the AIIMS, the finding of State Commission that it was a case of gross negligence cannot be sustained. 8. Consequently, the appeal of Mission of Mercy Hospital/OP-1 before the State Commission is allowed and the order of the West Bengal State Consumer Disputes RedressalCommission in Consumer Complaint No.339/0/1997 is set aside, qua the appellant. The deposit of Rs.1 lakh made by the Appellant together with the accrued interest and the statutory amount of Rs.35,000/- are directed to be released in favour of the Appellant.

published in http://164.100.72.12/ncdrcrep/judgement/00130816122903619FA56506%20.htm NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION NEW DELHI       FIRST APPEAL NO. 565 OF 2006 (Against the order dated 06.06.2006 in S.C.Case No.339/O/1997 of the State Commission, West Bengal) The Mission of Mercy Hospital & Research Centre, 125/1, Park Street, Town of Calcutta, Calcutta-700017                                                                                                                                               …..Appellant Versus 1. Shri N.C.Majumder S/o Late Surendra Kumar Majumder Residing at 89, S.G.D.Road, Birati, Post Office –Birati, … Continue reading

Patient admitted as Dengue later said as“aplastic anaemia” which is called blood cancer = patient died within 24 Hours – No Medical treatment Case record produced – Medical negligence proved – No expert need be examined = “It is admitted case of the opposite parties that as per the above tests, the disease suffered by the patient is known as ‘Aplastic Anemia’ which is called Blood Cancer in common language and not Dengue. It is not the case of the opposite parties that the patient was given the treatment of cancer or that the complainant was advised to shift his minor son (patient) to some other hospital for better treatment of cancer where the treatment of cancer was available. The patient was brought to the hospital of the opposite parties on 14.10.1998 and died on 15.10.1998. Thus, the opposite parties have rightly been held negligent and deficient in service while treating the minor son of the complainant. Though the opposite parties have taken the plea that they had given proper treatment to the patient, but before the District Forum the opposite parties failed to produce the treatment chart of the patient which proves the act and conduct of the opposite parties with respect to the treatment given to the patient. It is the case where the complainant has lost his hope due to death of his son aged about 10 years.” = expert opinion is not necessary in all cases where the negligence and deficiency in service of the treating doctor is established from the facts and circumstances of the case. Treating doctor can be involved in a criminal offence of medical negligence when there is some evidence of higher degree but the civil liability of the treating doctor for the wrong treatment given to a patient can be fastened on the basis of the facts and circumstances of the case.= Following observations of the Apex Court in the case of V. Kishan Rao (Supra) may be reproduced to clarify this aspect further:- “50. In a case where negligence is evident, the principle of res ipsa loquitur operates and the complainant does not have to prove anything as the thing (res) proves itself. In such a case it is for the respondent to prove that he has taken care and done his duty to repel the charge of negligence.” 10. In view of the above enumerated position in law, the least that can be expected of the petitioner / opposite parties was to produce the treatment record of the deceased child so as to enable the foras below to conclude if the petitioners had taken a reasonable care of the deceased patient or they were negligent in their duty to treat the child. From the observations of the State Commission reproduced above, it is evident that the petitioners failed to produce the treatment chart of the deceased patient in their evidence. In the absence of the treatment record, which could have thrown light on the issue of medical negligence, we are of the view that the foras below have rightly concluded that the petitioners were negligent in the treatment of the deceased child. Thus, we do not find any illegality or infirmity in the impugned order which may call for interference by this Commission in exercise of the revisional jurisdiction. The revision petition is accordingly dismissed in liminie with no order as to costs.

published in http://164.100.72.12/ncdrcrep/judgement/00130816112150467RP46842012.htm   NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION     NEW DELHI       REVISION PETITION NO.4684 OF 2012   (From the order dated 12.09.2012 in  First Appeal No.238/2005 of the   Haryana State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Panchkula)                                                                         WITH            IA/1/2012   IA/2/2012   (C/COPY & STAY)       1. Sun Flag Hospital Research Centre                                        ..…. Petitioners   … Continue reading

HINDU MARRIAGE ACT SEC. 13 [1] [1A] & [III]She merely suffered from cognitive deficiency. which is not a ground for granting divorce = the appellant-husband Darshan Gupta had never given the respondent, moral or emotional support, during the time of her distress. Despite the request of her treating doctor, he never accompanied her during the course of her consultations with doctors. The Family Court expressed the view, that the appellant husband Darshan Gupta himself, was responsible for the state of affairs of his wife-Radhika Gupta, inasmuch as, he did not heed the advise of the gynecologist, after the abortion of her first pregnancy in June 1999. The consulting Gynecologist had advised the couple against planning any further conception, for a period of at least two years. Despite the aforesaid advice, Darshan Gupta impregnated his wife Radhika Gupta, just after eight months of the said abortion. His desires had overridden, the health advisory of the gynecologist. The Family Court also concluded, that the appellant-husband had failed to establish, that the mental unsoundness of mind or mental disorder of the respondent-wife was of such degree, that he could not be expected to live with her.= Darshan Gupta had not been able to prove, that his wife was suffering from any incurable unsoundness of mind and/or mental disorder. Insofar as the solitary expert witness produced by the appellant-husband Darshan Gupta is concerned, Dr. M. Veera Raghawa Reddy-PW4, had admitted that while examining Radhika Gupta, he did not observe any signs of aggressiveness in the respondent-wife. On the contrary, he affirmed, that she was having a smiling face, and also,observed a calm and cool conduct.= Radhika Gupta left the company of the appellant-husband Darshan Gupta on 3.10.2011. On the said date itself, Radhika Gupta addressed a letter to the Registry of this Court. The said letter read thus : “The Hon’ble Supreme Court, by the order dated 19.09.2011 directed us to live happily for a period of six months. In pursuance to the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, my husband taken me into his matrimonial company on 29.09.2011 and kept me separately at his row (sic) house situated at Jubilee Hills. However, I am reporting from that day i.e. 29.09.2011 my husband is not behaving properly with me. Instead of showing love and affection, he is abusing me with filthy language without any reason. He is calling me “PAGAL” as and when he is addressing me. He is further saying that I have no sense and intelligence. Further he repeating me to leave him by taking money. He is further saying that even though his appeal before Supreme Court is dismissed he is not going to live with me. My in-laws also compelling me to agree for divorce by accepting money. My husband threatening me to agree for Divorce. The torture of my husband is beyond my tolerance. Hence under the above compelling circumstances I am leaving to my mothers’ place.”= whether the relief sought by the learned counsel for the appellant, on the ground of irretrievable breakdown of marriage is available to him. The reason for us to say so, is based on a judgment rendered by this Court in Vishnu Dutt Sharma vs. Manju Sharma, (2009) 6 SCC 379, wherein this Court has held as under:- “10. On a bare reading of Section 13 of the Act, reproduced above, it is crystal clear that no such ground of irretrievable breakdown of the marriage is provided by the legislature for granting a decree of divorce. This Court cannot add such a ground to Section 13 of the Act as that would be amending the Act, which is a function of the legislature.= We would, in our endeavour to determine the issue in hand, examine the matter, by reversing the roles of the parties. We will examine the matter as if, the wife had approached the Family Court seeking divorce, on the ground that her husband had suffered brain damage leading to cognitive deficiencies. Yet, despite the said deficiencies, his working memory had returned to “near normal” after treatment. And his mental condition was such, that it would not have any effect on his matrimonial obligations. And the wife’s family is agreeable to pay an amount to be determined by this Court (just as the husband-Darshan Gupta, has offered), so as to enable their daughter to break away, and find a more suitable match. Should she have been granted freedom from her matrimonial ties, in the given facts, in order to do complete justice to the parties? We would ask ourselves, whether the husband would have accepted such a plea, in the facts denoted above? In such situation, if this Court had, in exercise of its jurisdiction under Article 142 of the Constitution of India, granted compensation to the husband, and had dissolved his marriage on the pretext of doing complete justice between the parties, would the same be acceptable to the husband? We have no doubt in our mind, that on a reversal of roles, the husband, without any fault of his own, would have never accepted as just, the dissolution of his matrimonial ties, even if the couple had been separated for a duration, as is the case in hand. Specially, if the husband had, right from the beginning, fervently expressed the desire to restore his matrimonial relationship with his wife, and to live a normal life with her.= For the reasons recorded hereinabove, we find no merit in these appeals, and the same are accordingly dismissed.

‘ published in ‘ http://courtnic.nic.in/supremecourt/qrydisp.asp “REPORTABLE” IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NOS. 6332-6333 OF 2009 Darshan Gupta … Appellant Versus Radhika Gupta … Respondent J U D G M E N T Jagdish Singh Khehar, J. 1. The marriage between the appellant-husband, Darshan Gupta and the respondent-wife, Radhika Gupta, was solemnized … Continue reading

MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE – JURISDICTION- LIMITAION – LOCUS STANDI OF THIRD PARTY TO CONTINUE AFTER THE DEATH OF COMPLAINANT= initially complaint was filed before Delhi Forum and subsequently, complaint was filed before Mumbai Forum. But, both fora had no territorial jurisdiction to try the complaint. Late Ms.Mohsena in her complaint has stated that she had undergone Ayurvedic treatment in the year 2001, at Calicut, Kerala. Further, as per Ms.Mohsena’s case, she did not get desire relief for treatment, hence, she came to Mumbai and had undergone some treatment. Thereafter, she shifted to Delhi for further treatment. The mere fact that Ms. Mohsena after getting her initial treatment at Calicut, got further treatment at Mumbai and Delhi will not give these two fora any territorial jurisdiction. Hence, on this short point alone, consumer complaint ought to have been rejected. 15. The second question for consideration is as to whether petitioner has any locus standi to file the present revision petition. It is an admitted case that it was late Ms.Mohsena, who initially had under gone medical treatment provided by Taj Residency at Calicut. There is nothing on record to show that petitioner is the legal heir of Ms.Mohsena, as per Hindu Succession Act. Moreover, it has nowhere been stated by the petitioner as to when parents of Ms.Mohsena died, nor their death certificates have been filed. Thus, we have no hesitation in holding that petitioner is not the legal heir of Ms.Mohsena and as such she does not fall within the definition of “Consumer” as defined in the Act. 16. Next question to be seen is as to whether complaint was filed within the period of limitation. 17. As observed hereinabove, Ms.Mohsena got her initial treatment in Taj Residency, Calicut, in the year 2001. However, complaint was filed only in the year 2008 before the Mumbai forum. Thus, the complaint was hopelessly barred by limitation. = Petitioner who was having no locus standi to file the complaint has been pursuing this meritless litigation from day one, just to harass eight respondents out of whom seven are doctors. During last ten years, petitioner has taken the respondents to different consumer fora by filing one petition or the other, just to cause harassment to them. 22. Under these circumstances, present revision petition is liable to be dismissed with punitive cost. Accordingly, we dismiss the present revision petition with punitive cost of Rs.40,000 (Rupees Forty thousand only).

PUBLISHED IN http://164.100.72.12/ncdrcrep/judgement/00130606113118111RP23492011.htm   NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION NEW DELHI   REVISION  PETITION NO.   2349   OF  2011 (Against the order dated   24.06.2010   in Appeal No. A/10/267 of the State Commission,   Maharashtra) Ms. Raika Bandukwalla D/o Abdeali 25, Colaba causeway Mumbai – 400039                                                       ……. Petitioner   Versus   Dr. Anuradha Nayyar Samaj Ayurvedic Centre 14, Kohinoor Road Dadar East Mumbai – 400014   Dr.G.R. Verma The Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 8-A/42, W.E.A. Karol Bagh New Delhi-110005   Ayurvedic Trust & Research … Continue reading

UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICE – QUACK DOCTOR = According to the appellant, she came across an advertisement published in a newspaper ‘Jan Satta’ dated 8.8.1993 offering treatment of the patients having fits with Ayurvedi medicine by Dr. R.K. Gupta­ respondent No.1. The advertisement impressed the appellant as the respondent No.1 claimed total cure of fits. The appellant wrote a detailed letter to respondent No.1 about her son’s fits during high fever. In response, respondent No.1 sent a letter dated 23rd November, 1993 assuring that he had specialised treatment for the problem of Prashant by Ayurvedic medicines. despite medicines being given regularly the condition of Prashant started deteriorating day by day and the fits which were occasional and occurred only during the high fever, started occurring even without fever. = he is a quack and guilty of medical negligence, criminal negligence and breach of duty as he was playing with the lives of innocent people without understanding the disease. He was prescribing Allopathic medicines, for which he was not competent to prescribe. It was, inter alia, prayed that direction be issued to respondents to pay a sum of Rs.20 lakhs as compensation; to refund the charges paid by the appellant to the respondents and to reimburse the expenses incurred by the appellant on travelling to Rishikesh and a sum of Rs.10 lakhs for undergoing termination of pregnancy. = The National Commission has already held that respondent No.1 was guilty of unfair trade practice and adopted unfair method and deceptive practice by making false statement orally as well as in writing. In view of the aforesaid finding, we hold that both Prashant and the appellant suffered physical and mental injury due to the misleading advertisement, unfair trade practice and negligence of the respondents. The appellant and Prashant thus are entitled for an enhanced compensation for the injury suffered by them. Further, we find no reason given by the National Commission for deducting 50% of the compensation amount and to deposit the same with the Consumer Legal Aid Account of the Commission. 16. We, accordingly, set aside that part of the order passed by the National Commission and enhance the amount of compensation at Rs.15 lakhs for payment in favour of the appellant with a direction to the respondents to pay the amount to the appellant within three months. The appeal is allowed but there shall be no separate order as to costs.

Page 1 REPORTABLE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NO. 8660 OF 2009 BHANWAR KANWAR …. APPELLANT VERSUS R.K. GUPTA & ANR.  ….RESPONDENTS J UD G M E N T SUDHANSU JYOTI MUKHOPADHAYA, J. This   appeal   has   been   preferred   by   the complainant­appellant against the order and judgment dated   29th  January,   2009   passed   by   the   National Consumer   Disputes   Redressal   Commission,   New   Delhi (hereinafter   referred … Continue reading

Insurance policy claim – The appellant’s father lodged a claim for compensation by asserting that his son had suffered loss of vision due to accidental fall. After long correspondence, the respondents rejected the claim on the ground that the same was not covered by the policy. = Phthisis Bulbi is the endstage anatomic condition of the eye in response to severe ocular disease,infection, inflammation, or trauma. Clinically, it is categorized by a soft strophic eye with disorganization of intraocular structures. Phthisis Bulbi can be caused due to ocular injury, radiation, infection, or diffusion disease. Initial damage to intraocular structures either from penetrating trauma or inflammation can eventually lead to widespread atrophy and disorganization of the eye – Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology and Radiology of the Orbit and Visual Pathways, by Jonathan J. Dutton, Prof. of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina at Chepal Hill, USA.= it is clear that the State Commission and the National Commission committed serious error by dismissing the complaint of the appellant by assuming that his right eye was afflicted with the disease of Phthisis Bulbi and the same was the cause of loss of vision. They completely ignored the report of the Medical Board which had opined that Phthisis Bulbi can be caused due to injury caused due to fall. Before the State Commission, sufficient evidence was produced by the appellant to prove that he had an accidental fall on 22.10.1999 and as a result of that, right side of his head and the right eye were injured. Therefore, there is no escape from the conclusion that the appellant’s case was covered by the policy issued by respondent No.1 and the State Commission and the National Commission committed serious error by rejecting his claim. – In the result, the appeal is allowed, the impugned order as also the one passed by the State Commission dismissing the complaint filed by the appellant are set aside and the respondents are directed to pay compensation of Rs.7,00,000/- to the appellant with interest at the rate of 6% per annum from the date of filing the complaint. 16. The respondents are directed to pay the aforesaid amount to the appellant within a period of eight months from the date of receipt/production of copy of this judgment.

Page 1 NON-REPORTABLE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NO.2759 OF 2013 (Arising out of SLP(C) No. 25991 of 2008) Sandeep Kumar Chourasia …Appellant versus Divisional Manager, the New India Insurance Company Ltd. and another …Respondents J U D G M E N T G. S. Singhvi, J. 1. Leave granted. … Continue reading

Medical Negligence = the case of the Complainant was that her mother, Smt. Parvata Vardini was operated for hysterectomy in the OP-1 hospital on 28.4.1994. Her condition worsened when she developed abdominal swelling and respiratory problem. Allegedly, it was informed that a puncture wound was found in her intestine and leakage from it had to be removed. On 4.5.1994, another surgery was performed on her by OPs 3 to 6 but the patient died on the next day i.e. 5.5.1994.

NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION NEW DELHI REVISION PETITION NO.4690 OF 2009 (Against the order dated 12.10.2009 in First Appeal No.37/2007 of the State Commission, Andhra Pradesh)   Pragathi Hospitals, Nizamabad, Managed by Pragathi Hospital Trust, Hyderabad Road, Nizamabad Represented by its Trustee Dr. Ala Lakshma Reddy, S/o. A.V. Ganga Reddy, Nizamabad.   2. Dr. Meenakshi W/o. Dr. P.V. Ramakrishna, R/o Nizamabad.   3. Dr. P.V. Ramakrishna S/o S.Venkatachalam R/o Nizamabad                                                                                                                                                 ……….Petitioners   … Continue reading

“(3) A professional may be held liable for negligence on one of the two findings: either he was not possessed of the requisite skill which he professed to have possessed, or, he did not exercise, with reasonable competence in the given case, the skill which he did possess. The standard to be applied for judging, whether the person charged has been negligent or not, would be that of an ordinary competent person exercising ordinary skill in that profession. It is not possible for every professional to possess the highest level of expertise or skills in that branch which he practices. A highly skilled professional may be possessed of better qualities, but that cannot be made the basis or the yardstick for judging the performance of the professional proceeded against on indictment of negligence. (4) The test for determining medical negligence as laid down in Bolam case, WLR at p.586 holds good in its applicability in India.”

NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION NEW DELHI   FIRST APPEAL  NO.115 OF 2005 (From the order dated 02.03.2005 in Complaint No.70/2000 of the State Commission, M.P.)   Prem Bala                                                                                                                                                                                …Appellant Versus Dr.(Mrs.) Satinder Saluja & Ors.                                                                                                                                            …Respondents   BEFORE :             HON’BLE  MR. JUSTICE  ASHOK  BHAN,  PRESIDENT           HON’BLE  MRS. VINEETA RAI,  MEMBER   For the Appellant                            :         Mr. D.S. Chauhan, Advocate   For the Respondents                       :         NEMO.   Pronounced … Continue reading

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